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 Fish

Fish and Lamprey cwcs Species List

Literature Cited

Download all Fish and Lamprey Statewide Maps (60 MB may be slow to download)

Fish and Lamprey CWCS Species (68 species)


 

     Common name

     Scientific name


 

Alabama Shad

Alosa alabamae

Alligator Gar

Atractosteus spatula

Ashy Darter

Etheostoma cinereum

Black Buffalo

Ictiobus niger

Blackfin Sucker

Thoburnia atripinnis

Blackside Dace

Phoxinus cumberlandensis

Blacktail Redhorse

Moxostoma poecilurum

Blacktail Shiner

Cyprinella venusta

Bloodfin Darter

Etheostoma sanguifluum

Blotched Chub

Erimystax insignis

Bluntface Shiner

Cyprinella camura

Brighteye Darter

Etheostoma lynceum

Brown Madtom

Noturus phaeus

Burbot

Lota lota

Central Mudminnow

Umbra limi

Cumberland Arrow Darter

Etheostoma sagitta sagitta

Cumberland Johnny Darter

Etheostoma susanae

Cypress Darter

Etheostoma proeliare

Cypress Minnow

Hybognathus hayi

Dollar Sunfish

Lepomis marginatus

Duskytail Darter

Etheostoma percnurum

Emerald Darter

Etheostoma baileyi

Firebelly Darter

Etheostoma pyrrhogaster

Flathead Chub

Platygobio gracilis

Frecklebelly Darter

Percina stictogaster

Golden Topminnow

Fundulus chrysotus

Goldstripe Darter

Etheostoma parvipinne

Gulf Darter

Etheostoma swaini

Highland Rim Darter

Etheostoma kantuckeense

Inland Silverside

Menidia beryllina

Kentucky Arrow Darter

Etheostoma sagitta spilotum

Kentucky Darter

Etheostoma rafinesquei

Lake Chubsucker

Erimyzon sucetta

Lake Sturgeon

Acipenser fulvescens

Least Madtom

Noturus hildebrandi

Longhead Darter

Percina macrocephala

Northern Cavefish

Amblyopsis spelaea

Northern Madtom

Noturus stigmosus

Olive Darter

Percina squamata

Paddlefish

Polyodon spathula

Palezone Shiner

Notropis albizonatus

Pallid Shiner

Hybopsis amnis

Pallid Sturgeon

Scaphirhynchus albus

Plains Minnow

Hybognathus placitus

Redside Dace

Clinostomus elongatus

Redspotted Sunfish

Lepomis miniatus

Relict Darter

Etheostoma chienense

Sawfin Shiner

Notropis sp. 4

Shawnee Darter

Etheostoma tecumsehi

Sicklefin Chub

Macrhybopsis meeki

Slender Madtom

Noturus exilis

Smallscale Darter

Etheostoma microlepidum

Southern Cavefish

Typhlichthys subterraneus

Splendid Darter

Etheostoma barrenense

Spotted Darter

Etheostoma maculatum

Spring Cavefish

Forbesichthys agassizii

Stargazing Minnow

Phenacobius uranops

Starhead Topminnow

Fundulus dispar

Stone Darter

Etheostoma derivativum

Striped Darter

Etheostoma virgatum

Sturgeon Chub

Macrhybopsis gelida

Swamp Darter

Etheostoma fusiforme

Taillight Shiner

Notropis maculatus

Western Sand Darter

Ammocrypta clara

American Brook Lamprey

Lampetra appendix

Chestnut Lamprey

Ichthyomyzon castaneus

Mountain Brook Lamprey

Ichthyomyzon greeleyi

Northern Brook Lamprey

Ichthyomyzon fossor


 

CLASS     ACTINOPTERYGII

Alabama Shad

Federal Heritage GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            C                 E                 G3               S1                  G3                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Formerly distributed throughout the eastern Gulf Coastal drainages from

   Comment     Suwannee River, Florida to the Mississippi River (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

                           However, populations have greatly declined in the past 50 years.  

                         According to NatureServe (2004), the species currently has a very limited

                         distribution through the Gulf of Mexico tributaries.   In the Mississippi

                         River basin, populations there are small and are very rare (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993, Pflieger 1975).   In Tennessee, this species was known from

                         the Clinch and Stones Rivers and was apparently widespread in Tennessee

                         during pre-impoundment days, but no recent   records have been reported in

                         Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     Formerly abundant in the Mississippi and Ohio rivers and probably only

   Comment     enters Kentucky’s waters during the spawning run (Burr and Warren 1986).

                           Limited commercial fishing for this species has occurred in the Ohio River,

                         with the harvest of several thousand pounds per year (NatureServe 2004).   

                         Burr and Warren (1986) reported only one recent record is available from

                         the Mississippi River near New Madrid, Missouri; other records for

                         Kentucky waters predate 1900.   The most recent record in Kentucky was a

                         large adult specimen collected in July 1986 from the Tennessee River just

                         below Kentucky Dam in Marshall County (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Habitat /       This species is anadromous, with adults appearing in large spawning rivers

   Life History from January-March. Eggs are deposited over coarse sand and gravel

                         substrates swept by moderate currents at temperatures of 19-22 C during

                         April (Etnier and Starnes 1993).    After spawning, adults migrate

                         downstream with young appearing in the Mississippi River in Missouri

                         between mid-July and early October (Pflieger 1975). Juveniles stay in fresh

                         water for 6-8 months before leaving the rivers by winter and generally

                         return to spawn when 3-4 years old (NatureServe 2004).

   Key              The most recent records are from the lower Tennessee (Kentucky Lake

   Habitat         HUC 06040005) and Mississippi (HUC 08010100) River drainages.  

                         Habitat conditions for the lower Tennessee are considered fully supporting

                         of aquatic life for just over 50% of stream miles surveyed and only 32% are

                         fully supporting in the Mississippi (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Alabama Shad                                                                                                Alosa alabamae

   Guilds           Large rivers in current.

   Statewide   AlabamaShad.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2A     Navigational dredging/Commercial dredging

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff

             4G     Chemical spills and contaminants (applied and accidental)

             4K     Industrial waste discharge/runoff

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Alligator Gar                                                                                           Atractosteus spatula

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E              G3G4            S1                  G3                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Historically, this species ranged from southwest Ohio, southern Indiana,

   Comment     and southern Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico in the Mississippi River Basin.

                         Currently, it occurs along the Gulf Coastal Plain from the Florida panhandle

                          to Veracruz, Mexico. The species is now extirpated or very rare in the

                         northern portion of its range, and appears to be declining in the southern

                         portions. Once occurring in 13 states, this species is considered extirpated  

                         in three, imperiled or critically imperiled in six, vulnerable three states, and

                         apparently secure in only one state. Most of the decline appears to be

                         related to habitat alterations and commercial fishing. However, some

                         populations of Alligator gar still support fisheries in Arkansas and

                         Louisiana (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     Historically occurring in Kentucky as far up the Ohio River as Bracken

   Comment     County near Maysville (Trautman 1981). J. P. Kirtland noted this species

                         being captured   in the early 1800’s above Cincinnati.   Although Trautman

                         did not examine any specimens, he reported anecdotal evidence that the

                         species was present in the northern Kentucky area during the 1920’s

                         through the 1940’s. The species has not   been documented in Kentucky

                         since the late 1970’s. The most recent records include one from the lower

                         Cumberland River, two from the Ohio River at or below Paducah, and one

                         from the mouth of Bayou Du Chien (Fulton County) as it enters the

                         Mississippi River (Burr and Warren 1986). The Kentucky State Nature

                         Preserves Commission (2004) recommends a conservation status of

                         endangered for this species within the state.

   Habitat /       This species is one of the largest freshwater fishes in the U.S.. The largest

   Life History known gar collected in Louisiana was 9 feet 8.5 inches and weighed 302

                         pounds (NatureServe 2004). These fish inhabits sluggish pools of large

                         rivers and their bayous, oxbows, and backwaters. The have been known to

                         occur in brackish water and rarely in coastal marine waters. Spawning can

                         occur from January through September depending on the latitude. These

                         fish spawn over vegetation and appear to require some flowing water during

                          spawning (NatureServe 2004). Their resiliency appears low, as any given

                         population has been estimated to need >14 years in order to double in size

                         (Froese and Pauly 2004). Alligator gars are considered to be


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Alligator Gar                                                                                           Atractosteus spatula

                         carnivores/piscivores. Although they eat mainly fish and crabs, food habit

                         studies have shown them to also consume turtles, waterfowl and other

                         birds, small mammals and are believed to scavenge (Etnier and Starnes

                         1993).

   Key              The most recent records are from near the mouth of the Ohio River and in

   Habitat         the Mississippi River bordering Kentucky. These include the lower

                         Cumberland River (HUC 05130205; 1 record), Kentucky Lake (HUC

                         06040005; 1 record), lower Ohio River (HUC 05140206; 2 records), and

                         lower Mississippi (HUC 08010100; 1 record). Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life ranges from 32% (Mississippi HUC) to 75%

                         (Kentucky Lake HUC) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.  

                         Historically, this species occurred in the Middle Ohio-Laughery HUC

                         (05090203) between 1830 and 1840, Silver-Little Kentucky River HUC

                         (05140101) in the early 1800’s, and Ohio Brush-Whiteoak HUC

                         (05090201) between 1920 and 1940. No reports of Alligator gar have

                         subsequently been reported and it is thought the fish no longer exists in this

                         portion of the river.

   Guilds           Large rivers in slackwater.

   Statewide   AlligatorGar.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

             2L      Levee construction

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5J       Incidental mortality due to commercial fishing/musseling (mortality and

                       overharvest)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4J       Barge traffic

        Terrestrial habitat degradation

             3R     Habitat and/or Population Fragmentation


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Ashy Darter                                                                                          Etheostoma cinereum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S              G2G3            S3                  G2                        S3

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The ashy darter is distributed sporadically in the Tennessee and

   Comment     Cumberland river drainages in Kentucky and Tennessee (NatureServe 2004).

                          This species has been extirpated from margins of its range in Georgia and

                         Alabama, and apparently in Virginia. It is a threatened species in Tennessee

                         (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     This species occurs in the Little South Fork Cumberland River, South Fork

   Comment     Cumberland River, and Rockcastle River in Kentucky (Burr and Warren

                         1986).   It is possibly extirpated from the Red River (Logan County), but

                         was recently rediscovered in Buck Creek, Pulaski County (Compton and

                         Moeykens 2001).

   Habitat /     The ashy darter inhabits clear upland streams and rivers in slow to moderate

   Life History current below and above riffles and in pools up to 1.75 meters deep (Burr

                         and Warren 1986). This species is usually associated with sand and gravel

                         substrates and boulders, tree snags, or water willow as cover. Spawning is

                         from late January to early April near boulders and water willow (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the Rockcastle River (HUC 05130102), Upper

   Habitat         Cumberland – Lake Cumberland (HUC 05130103), and South Fork

                         Cumberland (HUC 05130104) watersheds. Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life ranges from 51.5% to 90.0% of stream miles

                         surveyed within these watersheds, all of which contain outstanding resource

                          waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   AshyDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Ashy Darter                                                                                          Etheostoma cinereum

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining


CLASS      Actinopterygii

Black Buffalo                                                                                                       Ictiobus niger

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  color: S                 G5               S3                  color: G5                        S3

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend      Throughout its range, the black buffalo appears to be less common than the other

   Comment     species of buffalo (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Some authorities regard this

                         species to be inadequately diagnosed and its taxonomic status uncertain (Burr and

                          Warren 1986, Robison and Buchanan 1988).   This has led to uncertainty

                         regarding its distributional status in several states and speculation about

                         misidentifications.   The species is generally treated as vulnerable to imperiled in

                         most of the upper Mississippi River basin and Ohio River drainage.   It is

                         considered secure in only a few states in the middle and lower Mississippi River

                         basin, although records in the Gulf Slope drainages in Texas and New Mexico are

                          thought to potentially be based on misidentifications or introductions (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993, Natureserve 2008, Shute 1980).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend       Burr and Warren (1986) regarded this species as sporadic and rare in rivers and

   Comment     reservoirs in western Kentucky, and sporadic in the main channels of the

                         Mississippi and Ohio rivers.   In the Ohio River, Pearson and Krumholz (1984)

                         reported the distribution of the black buffalo to be nearly identical to that of the

                         smallmouth buffalo, but much less common.   Since 1986, many additional

                         records have been reported for the middle and lower Ohio River, and relatively

                         few from the Mississippi River and minor tributaries in western Kentucky;

                         however, many of these records are not tied to vouchered specimens and need to

                          be confirmed.   The black buffalo is listed as a species of Special Concern by the

                         Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2005).

   Habitat /       In Kentucky, the black buffalo occurs in pools and backwaters of streams and

   Life              larger rivers, but can also be found in reservoirs, oxbows, and other lentic

   History          environments (Burr and Warren 1986).   The species has also been reported to

                         prefer stronger currents of rivers and reservoirs (Pfleiger 1997, Robison and

                         Buchanan 1988).   The black buffalo is a bottom feeder consuming benthic

                         macroinvertebrates, with mollusks such as the introduced Asian Clam (Corbicula)

                          being a large dietary component (Becker 1983, Minckley et al. 1970).   Spawning

                          has been reported to occur during April and May, during which fish congregate

                         in large numbers in shallow water broadcasting eggs over a variety of hard

                         substrates from bedrock to gravel (Piller et al. 2003).   Piller et al. (2003)

                         observed spawning fish that had migrated into a small stream from a reservoir,

                         but suggested the possibility that black buffalo may be adaptable to other habitats

                         for spawning, such as shallow areas of reservoirs.


Key            Most occurrence records available for this species are from the Middle and

   Habitat         Lower Ohio River, including the following HUC8 units: 05090103 Little Scioto-

                         Tygarts (1 record, 2006), 05090201 Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (11 records, 1988-

                         2007), 05090203 Middle Ohio-Laughery (3 records, 1988-2005) 05140101

                         Silver-Little Kentucky (1973-2007, 5 records), 05140104 Blue-Sinking (1976-

                         2005, 2 records), 05140201 Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (1976-2008, 10 records),

                         05140202 Highland-Pigeon (2008, 1 record), 05140203 Lower Ohio-Bay (1997-

                         2008, 17 records), 05140206 Lower Ohio (1996-2008, 13 records).   Although

                         the Ohio River has been assessed and found to fully support aquatic life

                         (ORSANCO 2008), the entire river has been impounded by a series of navigation

                         locks and dams, which has also diminished natural variation flow conditions in

                         the lower reaches of tributaries. Various sources of industrial and domestic

                         pollution severely degraded water quality during the first half of the 20th century,

                          with some improvements made following the establishment of regulatory

                         measures such as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act   Amendments of 1972

                         (Pearson and Krumholz 1984).  

                        

                         The species has not been reported from the Green River basin since 1983, and

                         only a few records exist in the following HUC8 units: 05110006 Pond (1982, 1

                         record), 05110003 Middle Green (1983, 1 record), 05110004 Rough (1959-1961,

                          2 records).   Habitat conditions were found to be fully supporting of aquatic life

                         use in 28% of wadeable streams based on probabilistic (random) surveys in the

                         Green-Tradewater Basin Management Unit.   This level of support was higher in

                         comparison to the upper Cumberland River and Four Rivers basins (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2008).

                        

                         The Lower Tennessee (HUC8 06040006) and Lower Cumberland (HUC8

                         05130205) each have relatively recent records (1997-2006) below Kentucky and

                         Barkley dams; no recent records are available for Kentucky or Barkley reservoirs.

                           Most records available for the Jackson Purchase area, including the Lower

                         Mississippi-Memphis (HUC8 08010100) and Bayou du Chien-Mayfield (HUC8

                         08010201) were collected prior to 1986; only two records were reported since

                         2000.   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life in the Four Rivers basins

                         based on a probability biosurvey and analysis were 17% of wadeable streams

                         were fully supporting of aquatic life use (Kentucky Division of Water 2008).   The

                          mainstem Mississippi River, like the Ohio, has been altered by channel

                         modifications to accommodate barge traffic, which has deteriorated conditions to

                          fully support aquatic life.


  Guilds           Large rivers in slackwater.

   Statewide     Black_Buffalo.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns (flow/temp regimes)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5J       Incidental mortality due to commercial fishing/musseling (mortality and

                       overharvest)

             5K     Lack of suitable habitat for spawning, nesting, or breeding


 

CLASS        ACTINOPTERYGII

Blackfin Sucker                                                                                       Thoburnia atripinnis

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G2               S2                  G2                        S2

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The blackfin sucker is endemic to the Barren River drainage basin. The

   Comment     Tennessee Valley Authority has documented 13 locality records from the

                         Tennessee portion of the Barren River (NatureServe 2004). The status of

                         these populations is unknown. Kentucky has documented 33 records for

                         this species from the 1940’s to the present. The status of these populations

                          is considered stable, although no current population data is available. The

                         American Fisheries Society lists the Blackfin sucker as a species of special

                         concern, while NatureServe (2004) lists it as imperiled in Kentucky and

                         critically imperiled in Tennessee.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     This species is endemic to the Barren River drainage in southern Kentucky

   Comment     and a portion of northern Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993). In

                         Kentucky, this small sucker (maximum length is 6 inches) resides in the

                         headwater streams of Allen, Barren, Metcalf, and Monroe counties. The

                         Blackfin sucker can be considered common in a drainage, although their

                         distribution may be very localized (Burr and Warren 1986). These fish

                         inhabit small to medium size upland headwater streams along the Highland

                         Rim in the southwestern portion of the state. The Kentucky State Nature

                         Preserves Commission has listed the Blackfin sucker as threatened and

                         recommended it be labeled as a species of special concern in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe 2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits pool and riffle areas in clear water with moderate current and gravel

   Life History or rubble substrates in creeks and medium sized rivers (NatureServe 2004).

                         They are benthic living on or near the bottom of the stream, and seek shelter

                          along shorelines with overhanging brush, near boulders, or in rock crevices

                         (Burr and Warren 1986). Diet consists primarily of microcrustacea and

                         insect larvae. Spawning occurs in shallow, swift water over riffles in the

                         early spring (March and April). After hatching, the young are found in

                         pools with moderate flow and in smaller tributaries over fine gravel (Etnier

                         and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently exists only in the upper Barren River (HUC 05110002).   Nearly

   Habitat         93% of the stream miles surveyed within this watershed have habitat

                         conditions fully supporting aquatic life and 14.7 miles of stream have been

                         deemed outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2004).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Blackfin Sucker                                                                                       Thoburnia atripinnis

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   BlackfinSucker.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4G     Chemical spills and contaminants (applied and accidental)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Blackside Dace                                                                             Phoxinus cumberlandensis

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                           LT                 T                 G2               S2                  G2                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The blackside dace are restricted to the Cumberland Plateau portion of the

   Comment     upper Cumberland drainage and are found above and below Cumberland

                         Falls in Kentucky and Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     Populations of the blackside dace in Kentucky are believed to be stable to

   Comment     slightly declining with the complete loss of several populations in Bell

                         County probably as a result of logging and urban sprawl rather than from

                         mining activities (David Eisenhour, Morehead State University, personnel

                         communications).   In Kentucky, the blackside dace is known from 91

                         streams with only 22 streams supported excellent or good populations;

                         most populations were very small and near extirpation (NatureServe 2004).

                          Kentucky streams that receive a high degree of protection include the Bad

                         Branch, Eagle Creek, Watts Creek, Beaver Creek and associated tributaries,

                         and Davis Branch.   The blackside dace also occurs in several streams on

                         Daniel Boone National Forest, but these do not receive the same high degree

                          of protection as the previously mentioned streams; Cannon Creek also have

                          blackside dace populations and is protected to some degree by being

                         designated as unsuitable for mining (NatureServe 2004).

   Habitat /       Confined to small upland creeks, usually 300-500 m in elevation, and are 2-

   Life History 5 m in width (Burr and Warren 1986).   Typically found in sluggish pools of

                         shaded and cool streams that have a riffle to pool ratio that approaches

                         60:40 (Burr and Warren 1986).   This species is usually also associated with

                         lush riparian vegetation, canopy cover greater than 70%, and unsilted

                         conditions and apparently can recolonize areas when water quality or

                         habitat conditions become more favorable if suitable dispersal corridors exist

                          (NatureServe 2004).

   Key              Currently exists in the South Fork Cumberland (HUC 05130104), Upper

   Habitat         Cumberland (HUC 05130101), Rockcastle River (HUC 05130102), and

                         Upper Cumberland Lake Cumberland (HUC 05130103) watersheds.   The

                         Upper Cumberland (HUC 05130101) contains the majority of these

                         records.   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life ranges from 67%

                         (Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland HUC) to 90% (South Fork

                         Cumberland HUC) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.   All


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Blackside Dace                                                                             Phoxinus cumberlandensis

                         contain outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland headwater streams in pools.

   Statewide   BlacksideDace.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5A     Predation from introduced species

             5D     Competition from introduced/invasive or native species

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Blacktail Redhorse                                                                              Moxostoma poecilurum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    Gulf Slope drainages from Galveston Bay tributaries, Texas, to

   Comment     Choctawhatchee River drainage, Alabama and Florida; Mississippi River

                         tributaries from southern Kentucky and southern Arkansas south to

                         Louisiana.   Found only in the states of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida,

                         Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Texas.   This

                         species is broadly distributed in the southeastern U.S. and often abundant in

                          rivers, reservoirs, small to large streams, swamps, and the Mobile Delta

                         (Mettee et al. 1996).   According to NatureServe (2004), this species is

                         locally common, but rare in Kentucky and Tennessee.   It is considered

                         secure (S5) or apparently secure (S4) in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee,

                         Texas and Tennessee; vulnerable (S3) in Georgia; imperiled in Arkansas; and

                          critically imperiled (S1) in Kentucky.

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     This species reaches the northernmost limit of its range in in the

   Comment     southwestern corner of the state, where it occurs only in Terrapin Creek,

                         Graves County (Burr and Warrren 1986).   It is considered critically

                         imperiled (S1) in Kentucky (NatureServe 2004).

   Habitat /     Little is known about the biology of this species. Spawning occurs in mid-

   Life History to late spring in shoal areas of small streams (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   In

                         Terrapin Creek, both adults and juveniles have been collected from sandy

                         bottomed pools; however, the closest reproducing population known occurs

                          downstream in the Obion River in Tennessee (Burr and Carney 1984).

   Key              Occurs only in Obion Creek HUC8 (08010202).   Habitat conditions fully

   Habitat         supporting aquatic life is about 28% of the stream miles surveyed in this

                         watershed, with a total of 1.7 stream miles considered outstanding resource

                         water (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   BlacktailRedhorse.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Blacktail Redhorse                                                                              Moxostoma poecilurum

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


CLASS        Actinopterygii

Blacktail Shiner                                                                                           Cyprinella venusta

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  color: S                 G5               S3                  color: G5                        S3

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend      This species occurs in the Gulf Coastal Plain from the Suwannee River system in

   Comment     Florida to the Rio Grande in Texas, where it is generally abundant (Etnier and

                         Starnes, 1993), and in the Mississippi basin north to central Missouri and extreme

                          southern Illinois (Boschung and Mayden 2004).   Most populations are

                         considered to be stable, having experienced declines and fluctuations over a small

                          portion (approximately 10%) of the species’ range (Natureserve 2008).  

                         Kristmundsdottir and Gold (1996) identified four groups (clades) based on

                         geographic variation in mtDNA (Choctawatchee, Apalachicola, Mobile, and

                         Western) that could potentially be recognized as distinct species, although

                         additional study is needed.

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend       Although it is considered to be stable throughout most of its range, the blacktail

   Comment     shiner is considered vulnerable to critically imperiled at the northern periphery of

                         its range in western Kentucky and southern Illinois, where it faces threats of

                         habitat loss and hybridization with the invasive red shiner (Smith 1979, Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   This species needs regular periodic surveys to monitor long-term

                         trends in distributional status and abundance. It is listed as Special Concern by

                         the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2005).

   Habitat /       In Kentucky, the blacktail shiner mostly occurs in small Coastal Plain streams

   Life              over firm sand/gravel substrates in riffles, raceways, or along undercut banks

   History          and around submerged logs and stumps.   Less frequently, or more sporadically, it

                          is found along shorelines of the Mississippi and lower Ohio rivers over firm sand

                          or gravel in current (Burr and Warren 1986).   The blackfin shiner is a schooling

                         species feeding primarily aquatic insect larvae, terrestrial insects, and small seeds

                         (Robison and Buchanan 1988, Ross 2001).   In Tennessee, the spawning period

                         has been estimated to occur from mid-May through August, based on

                         observations of males in breeding condition (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Eggs are

                         deposited by females in crevices of submerged objects occupied and defended by

                          breeding males (Heins 1990, Pfleiger 1997, Boschung and Mayden 2004).


  Key            This species is restricted to extreme western Kentucky, where it occurs in

   Habitat         Terrapin Creek (Obion River HUC8 08010202), Lower Ohio (HUC8 05140206),

                         Lower Mississippi-Memphis (HUC8 08010100), and Bayou De Chien-Mayfield

                         (08010100) watersheds.   These watersheds are located primarily within the

                         Mississippi Loess Plains in the Jackson Purchase area and small sections of the

                         Interior River Valleys and Hills (along the lower Ohio River) and Mississippi

                         Alluvial Plain (along the Mississippi River).   Forested wetlands that were once

                         extensive have been replaced by cropland and pastureland.   Streams typically

                         have low gradients with gravel and sand substrates.   Nearly all of the major

                         stream systems containing blacktail shiner populations have been channelized to

                         some degree (Burr and Warren 1986, Woods et al. 2002).

   Guilds           Large rivers in current, Lowland Streams in riffles, Lowland Streams in

                         slackwater.

   Statewide     Blacktail_Shiner.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5D     Competition from introduced/invasive or native species

             5E      Hybridization with closely related species

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

 

CLASS        ACTINOPTERYGII

Bloodfin Darter                                                                                Etheostoma sanguifluum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N              G4G5          S4S5                G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The bloodfin darter occurs in the middle Cumberland River drainage, from

   Comment     Caney Fork, Tennessee, to Rockcastle River, Kentucky (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is restricted to the middle Cumberland River

   Comment     where it is generally distributed and common in the Rockcastle River, Big

                         and Little South Forks, and Buck Creek (Burr and Warren 1986).

   Habitat /     Occurs in small to medium upland streams and rivers along or near the

   Life History Pottsville Escarpment and the easternmost region of the Highland Rim.  

                         Inhabits moderate to rapid currents or riffles with substrates of boulder,

                         cobble, and pebble.   Spawning and nest-building occur in the interspaces

                         between the substrate and overlying rocks (Burr and Warren 1986).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the Rockcastle River HUC8 (05130102),

   Habitat         Upper Cumberland – Lake Cumberland HUC8 (05130103), South Fork

                         Cumberland HUC8 (05130104).   Habitat conditions fully supporting

                         aquatic life range from 67.3% (Upper Cumberland – Lake Cumberland

                         HUC8) to 90.0% (South Fork Cumberland HUC8) of stream miles

                         surveyed within these watersheds, all of which contain outstanding resource

                          waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   BloodfinDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Bloodfin Darter                                                                                Etheostoma sanguifluum

Conservation Issues

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Blotched Chub                                                                                           Erimystax insignis

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E              G3G4            S1                  G3                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The blotched chub occurs in the Cumberland and Tennessee river drainages

   Comment     of southern Kentucky, Tennessee, western Virginia, western North

                         Carolina, northern Georgia, and northern Alabama. (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is sporadic and uncommon in the upper

   Comment     Cumberland River (below the falls) where it is known from five localities.   It

                          was collected in the Red River (of the middle Cumberland) by Kentucky

                         State Nature Preserves Commission in the early 1980’s (Burr and Warren

                         1986).   Reports of this species in the Green and Kentucky River systems

                         are based on the superficially similar streamline chub (Burr and Warren

                         1986)

   Habitat /     Occurs in riffle areas in medium to large-size streams and rivers, where there

   Life History is continuous flow, clear, and gravel or rocky bottom (Burr and Warren

                         1986).   Its habitat is similar to those of the streamline chub, however this

                         species prefers slightly coarser substrates and tolerating much smaller

                         streams (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Spawning occurs in mid-April through

                         early May as water temperature approaches 15 C (60F). Sexual maturity is

                         reached at age-1. Life span is 2.5 years.   Food consists of about half

                         periphyton and half aquatic insect larvae dominated by dipterans and

                         mayflies.   Maximum total length is 100 mm SL (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Although known historically from four HUC8 watershed units in

   Habitat         Kentucky, the only recent records (post-1984) are from the Red River (of

                         the Cumberland) HUC (05130206).   Habitat conditions in the Red River

                         HUC8 are good as 73.1% of assessed streams were found to be fully

                         supporting aquatic life. A total of 43.7 miles of streams in this HUC8 are

                         considered outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   BlotchedChub.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Blotched Chub                                                                                           Erimystax insignis

Conservation Issues

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Bluntface Shiner                                                                                          Cyprinella camura

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The bluntface shiner is common in eastern tributaries to the lower

   Comment     Mississippi River from Obion Creek south (Etnier and Starnes 1993). It

                         also occurs in a few southwestern tributaries to the Tennessee River and the

                          Central Arkansas River drainage.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is known to occur only in Terrapin Creek in

   Comment     Graves County and Obion Creek in Hickman County (Burr and Warren

                         1986). It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004)

                         and endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission

                         (2004).

   Habitat /     The bluntface shiner is restricted to small sand or gravel-bottomed streams

   Life History in raceways and riffles on the Coastal Plain (Burr and Warren 1986). This

                         species is normally near submerged logs. Spawning may occur from May

                         through August (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the Bayou du Chien – Mayfield (HUC

   Habitat         08010201) and Obion Creek (HUC 08010202) watersheds. Habitat

                         conditions in these watersheds considered fully supporting of aquatic life

                         include 27.8% (Bayou du Chien-Mayfield HUC8) and 37.0% (Obion Creek

                         HUC8) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.   Both contain

                         outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water, 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.

   Statewide   BluntfaceShiner.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Bluntface Shiner                                                                                          Cyprinella camura

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching.   Burr and Warren (1986)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development).   Burr and Warren (1986)

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration .   Burr and Warren (1986)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5D     Competition from introduced/invasive or native species.   Burr and Warren

                       (1986)

             5E      Hybridization with closely related species.   Burr and Warren (1986)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture.   Burr and Warren (1986)


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Brighteye Darter                                                                                      Etheostoma lynceum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    Formerly considered a subspecies of the banded darter, the brighteye darter

   Comment     was elevated to species status by Etnier and Starnes (1986). This species is

                         distributed throughout the upper Coastal Plain east of the Mississippi

                         River from the Obion River system in Tennessee and Kentucky south and

                         east through Pascagoula River drainage of Mississippi and western Alabama

                          (Etnier and Starnes, 1993).   Although species continues to be common in

                         better quality streams within its range, some populations have likely been

                         eliminated by channelization (Etnier and Starnes, 1993).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is confined to Terrapin Creek in Graves County.  

   Comment     It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004 and

                         endangered by the   Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Occurs in Coastal Plain streams with noticeable flow over a substrate of

   Life History gravel riffles or an accumulation of detrital material, often where rooted

                         aquatic vegetation is present (Etnier and Starnes, 1993).   Bell and Timmons

                         (1991) documented the species occurring in dense tree roots around

                         undercut banks during the winter and in fast flowing, shallow gravel riffles

                         during the summer.   Diet consisted mainly of midge larvae (Chironomidae).  

                         Reproduction occurred from April to June, with fecundity estimates ranging

                           from 33-116 to 65-201 mature ova per age-1 female.   Although Bell and

                         Timmons (1991) did not observe spawning activity in the field or lab, it is

                         probably similar to that of the banded [personal communication, L.

                         Kornman] in which the female attaches eggs to filamentous algae and aquatic

                          mosses attached to rocks and other submerged objects. Eggs are deposited a

                          few at a time as the male mounts the female and fertilized the eggs (Pflieger,

                          1977 citing Walters, 1994).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Obion Creek (HUC 08010202)

   Habitat         watershed (Terrapin Creek, Graves County).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting of aquatic life include 27.8% of stream miles surveyed within

                         this watershed.   It contains 1.7 stream miles regarded as outstanding

                         resource water (Kentucky Division of Water, 2002).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Brighteye Darter                                                                                      Etheostoma lynceum

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.

   Statewide   BrighteyeDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2D     Woody debris removal

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Brown Madtom                                                                                              Noturus phaeus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G4               S1                  G4                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The brown madtom occurs in Mississippi River tributaries in southwestern

   Comment     Kentucky, western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and northwestern

                         Alabama; and disjunctly in southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and southwestern

                          Mississippi; Tennessee River tributaries in western Tennessee and

                         northwestern Alabama; Gulf Slope in Sabine River and Bayou Teche

                         drainages (Natureserve 2004).   Although only a few are collected at a time at

                          any given locality, they are considered locally common (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is known to occur only in Terrapin and Powell

   Comment     creeks, Graves County (Burr and Warren 1986).   Within Terrapin Creek, it

                         is locally common.   No observations have been made in Powell Creek since

                         1984 (Burr and Warren 1986, D. Eisenhour, Morehead State University,

                         personal communication).   It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe, 2004) and endangered by the Kentucky State Nature

                         Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Occurs in permanent springs and small streams with vegetation in moderate

   Life History to fast current (NatureServe 2004).   Specific habitat includes sand-gravel

                         riffles and runs among debris, rocks, and undercut banks of springs, creeks,

                         and small rivers (NatureServe 2004). In northern Mississippi, woody debris

                          and undercut banks were primary daytime microhabitats, and individuals

                         most often were in areas with complex (varying) flow; none were found in

                         the absence of debris, aquatic vegetation, or undercut banks (NatureServe

                         2004).   Diet of the brown madtom consists primarily of dipteran and

                         trichopteran larvae and crayfishes (NatureServe 2004).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Obion Creek (HUC 08010202)

   Habitat         watershed (Terrapin Creek, Graves County).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting of aquatic life include 27.8% of stream miles surveyed within

                         this watershed.   It contains 1.7 stream miles regarded as outstanding

                         resource water (Kentucky Division of Water, 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Brown Madtom                                                                                              Noturus phaeus

   Statewide   BrownMadtom.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5K     Lack of suitable habitat for spawning, nesting, or breeding

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      Actinopterygii

Burbot                                                                                                                          Lota lota

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  color: S                 G5              SU                  color: G5                        N

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend      Globally, the burbot is widely distributed in both hemispheres south to about 40

   Comment     degrees N (Lee and Gilbert 1980).   In the eastern hemisphere, it occurs

                         throughout Canada, Alaska, and northern United States south to Pennsylvania,

                         Kentucky, Missouri, Wyoming, and Oregon (Page and Burr 1991).   The species

                         is secure (often cited as common) throughout Cananda and Alaska, and the Great

                          Lakes drainages; however, it is uncommon in the Mississippi River basin (Becker

                          1983), which represents the southern periphery of its North American range.

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend       The status of the burbot in Kentucky has been in question since the earliest

   Comment     reported records from the Ohio River in the late 1800s (Clay 1975, Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   This species is infrequently caught, usually accidentally, by

                         anglers and commercial fishermen.   There is no evidence that reproduction

                         occurs anywhere in Kentucky (Clay 1975), and it is uncertain whether

                         occasionally captured individuals represent escapees from stocked fishing lakes in

                          Indiana, Kentucky, or Ohio, or are evidence of a sparse, but naturally

                         reproducing population.   The latter possibility is the reason it has been listed as a

                         species of Special Concern by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission

                         (2005).   Additional research is needed to clarify the status of this species in the

                         Ohio River.

   Habitat /       Habitat preferences for this species in Kentucky are poorly known; most

   Life              individuals have been captured by commercial or sport fishermen from large

   History          rivers.   In northern areas, the species prefers bottoms of cold lakes and streams

                         in depths greater than 1.5 m with substrates of rock, sand, and mud (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   The burbot is nocturnal in both its reproductive and feeding

                         habits (Lee and Gilbert 1980, Becker 1983).   In the Great Lakes and areas to the

                         north, spawning occurs in mid-winter, from January to March, usually in shallow

                          bays over and or on gravel shoals (Becker 1983, Holm et al. 2009).   In rivers,

                         spawning has been reported in areas of low current velocity in main channels or

                         side channels behind deposition bars (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). The

                         burbot has a voracious appetite, foraging on the bottom at night for wide variety

                         of fishes, crustaceans, and other benthic macroinvertebrates (Scott and

                         Crossman 1973, Holm et al. 2009).

   Key              The only records available for this species are from the Ohio, Kentucky, and

   Habitat         Licking rivers.   In the Ohio River, the burbot has been reported from the

                         following HUC8 units: 05090201 Ohio Brush-Whiteoak, 05090203 Middle Ohio-

                         Laughery, 05140101 Silver-Little Kentucky, 05140104 Blue-Sinking, 05140203

                         Lower Ohio-Bay, and 05140206 Lower Ohio.   Pre-1967 records are available for

                         the Lower Kentucky River (05100205) and Licking River (05100101).   The most

                          recent records are from the Ohio River: 05140203 Lower Ohio-Bay (2002, photo

                          record), 05140104 Blue-Sinking (1993, specimen record), and 05090201 Ohio

                         Brush-Whiteoak (1993, photo record) (Compton et al. 2004).   Although the Ohio

                         River has been assessed and found to fully support aquatic life (ORSANCO

                         2008), the entire river has been impounded by a series of navigation locks and

                         dams, which has also diminished natural variation flow conditions in the lower

                         reaches of tributaries. Various sources of industrial and domestic pollution

                         severely degraded water quality during the first half of the 20th century, with

                         some improvements made following the establishment of regulatory measures

                         such as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act   Amendments of 1972 (Pearson

                         and Krumholz 1984).

   Guilds           Large rivers in slackwater.

   Statewide     Burbot.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns (flow/temp regimes)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5J       Incidental mortality due to commercial fishing/musseling (mortality and

                       overharvest)

             5K     Lack of suitable habitat for spawning, nesting, or breeding

 

CLASS        ACTINOPTERYGII

Central Mudminnow                                                                                              Umbra limi

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G5            S2S3                G5                        S2

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The central mudminnow occurs in north central North America in the St.

   Comment     Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay (Red River), and Mississippi River

                         basins from Quebec to Manitoba and south to central Ohio, western

                         Tennessee, and northeastern Arkansas; Hudson River drainage (Atlantic

                         Slope), New York; isolated populations occur in the Missouri River

                         drainage of east-central South Dakota and western Iowa (NatureServe

                         2004).   It is common in northern glacial regions but uncommon southward.

                         The Coastal Plain of western Tennessee and northern Arkansas mark the

                         southernmost distribution of this species (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is at the southern most edge of its range, where

   Comment     populations seem to be stable to slightly declining   (D. Eisenhour,

                         Morehead State University, personal communication). It is occasional to

                         locally common in the Clarks and Blood River drainages, and Terrapin

                         Creek and Running Slough, Fulton County (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is

                         considered imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and threatened by

                         the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits dense beds of submergent vegetation or piles of organic debris in

   Life History spring-fed wetlands, ditches, or shallow margins of lowland lakes in the

                         Coastal Plain (Clay 1975).   This species usually prefers non-turbid water

                         over substrates of sand, mud, and organic debris. Spawning occurs in

                         shallow water during the spring water temperatures reach 13° C (55° F).  

                         Eggs are adhesive and deposited on vegetation.   Life span has been reported

                         to range between 4 and 9 years (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in four HUC8 watersheds:   Kentucky Lake

   Habitat         (HUC 06040005; 3 records), Lower Tennessee River (HUC 06040006; 8

                         records), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (HUC 08010201; 2 records), and

                         Obion Creek (HUC 08010202; 19 records). Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range from 27% (Obion Creek HUC) to 74.9%

                         (Kentucky Lake HUC) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.  

                         Number of stream miles considered outstanding resource waters range from

                         none (Kentucky Lake HUC) to 124.4 (Bayou du Chien-Mayfield Creek

                         HUC) (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Central Mudminnow                                                                                              Umbra limi

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   CentralMudminnow.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

             2I       Periodic cessation or removal of spring flows or seeps

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Cumberland Arrow Darter                                                            Etheostoma sagitta sagitta

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N              G3G4            S4                  G3                        S4

                                                                  T3T4

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    This subspecies of the arrow darter is an inhabitant of the Cumberland

   Comment     Plateau physiographic province (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   It ranges from

                         eastern tributaries to the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River System in

                          Kentucky and Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Global trend data is

                         unknown.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, the Cumberland arrow darter is endemic to the Cumberland

   Comment     River Drainage (Burr and Warren 1986).   It has been collected both above

                         and below the Cumberland Falls (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   The

                         Cumberland arrow darter is considered secure in Kentucky and populations

                         are currently stable (D. Eisenhour, Morehead State University, personal

                         communication; Natureserve 2004).

   Habitat /       Generally inhabits headwater creeks, but juveniles and occasionally adults

   Life History may be taken in medium sized streams (Burr and Warren 1986).   It occurs in

                          sluggish pools or areas above and below riffles over substrates of bedrock,

                         cobble, and pebble (Burr and Warren 1986), and is commonly found

                         associated with large, flat stones (Page 1983).   Spawning takes place in

                         April when water temperatures are around 13° C. (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

                           Common food items include mayflies, midges, and stoneflies (Page 1983).  

                         This species is moderately tolerant to siltation (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the Upper Cumberland (HUC 05130101),

   Habitat         Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (HUC 05130103), and South Fork

                         Cumberland (HUC8 051301014) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range from 67% (Upper Cumberland-Lake

                         Cumberland) to 90% (South Fork Cumberland) of stream miles surveyed

                         within these watersheds.   Most records lie within the Upper Cumberland

                         HUC, which contains 404.4 stream miles considered outstanding resource

                         water (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland headwater streams in pools.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Cumberland Arrow Darter                                                            Etheostoma sagitta sagitta

   Statewide   CumberlandArrowDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Cumberland Johnny Darter                                                                   Etheostoma susanae

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            C                 E                 G2               S1                  G2                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The Cumberland johnny darter is found in the Cumberland River drainage

   Comment     above Cumberland Falls in eastern Kentucky and adjacent Tennessee

                         (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend       

   S-Trend     This species is found only in tributaries to the Cumberland River drainage

   Comment     above Cumberland Falls (NatureServe 2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits shallow water in low velocity shoals and backwater areas of

   Life History moderate gradient streams with sand or sandy gravel substrate (NatureServe

                          2004). Spawning occurs in April and May.

   Key              Restricted to the Upper Cumberland River (HUC 05130101) drainage.

   Habitat         Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life include 70.3% of stream

                         miles surveyed within this watershed, in which 404.4 stream miles are

                         considered outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland headwater streams in pools.

   Statewide   CumberlandJohnnyDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Cypress Darter                                                                                      Etheostoma proeliare

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G5               S2                  G5                        S2

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The cypress darter ranges from the Choctawhatchee River in Florida to the

   Comment     San Jacinto River in Texas, north through the Mississippi Valley to

                         southern Illinois and eastern Oklahoma (Page 1983, Etnier and Starnes 1993,

                          Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is sporadic and rare in creeks, streams, sloughs,

   Comment     and oxbows that border the Mississippi and lower Ohio Rivers, and the

                         lower Cumberland and Tennessee River drainages (Burr and Warren 1986).  

                         It is considered imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and threatened

                         by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits lowland creeks, oxbow lakes, and wetland flood plains of the Ohio,

   Life History Mississippi, lower Tennessee, and lower Cumberland Rivers.   This species

                         is generally associated with leaf-laden and/or vegetated water bodies in

                         sluggish current, pools, or shorelines of lakes.   Tree roots along undercut

                         banks may also harbor the species if other cover is absent (Burr and Warren

                         1986).   Sexual maturity is reached at one year of age.   Spawning occurs from

                          mid-March to early June.   Females contain 26-116 eggs and deposit them

                         on dead leaves, twigs, rock and filamentous algae.   Eggs are not guarded and

                         hatch in 5-13 days based on temperature.   Life span is 1.5 years.   Principal

                         food items are midge larvae and microcrusteaceans (Page 1983, Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in eight HUC8 watersheds: Lower Cumberland

   Habitat         (HUC 05130205), Lower Ohio - Bay (HUC 05140203), Lower Ohio (HUC

                          05140206), Kentucky Lake (HUC 06040005), Lower Tennessee (HUC

                         06040006), Lower Mississippi – Memphis (HUC 08010100), Bayou De

                         Chien – Mayfield (HUC 08010201), and Obion Creek (HUC 08010202).  

                         Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life range from 0% (Lower

                         Mississippi – Memphis HUC) to 74.9% (Lower Tennessee-Kentucky Lake

                          HUC) of stream miles surveyed, of which 154.6   are considered

                         outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002 and 2004).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Cypress Darter                                                                                      Etheostoma proeliare

   Statewide   CypressDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Cypress Minnow                                                                                        Hybognathus hayi

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The cypress minnow occurs in the Ohio and Mississippi Basins from

   Comment     southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana

                         downstream to the Gulf Coast, where it extends from the panhandle of

                         Florida west to the Sabine River drainage in Louisiana and Texas.   The range

                          includes the lower Tennessee River drainage upstream through central

                         Alabama (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Formerly known from southeast

                         Missouri and southern Illinois.   Page and Burr (1991) reported that the

                         species was locally common, but apparently, the species is disappearing

                         from the northern part of the range (Missouri and Illinois).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is sporadic and rare in direct Mississippi River

   Comment     tributaries of extreme western Kentucky and oxbow lakes of the Ohio River.

                           Also found in the West Fork Clarks River, Panther Creek in Daviess

                         County and Long Pond in Hopkins County.   The latter two are the

                         easternmost records from the state (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is considered

                          critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and endangered by the

                          Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits sloughs, swamps, oxbows and backwaters and pools of slow

   Life History moving creeks usually over mud, silt, sand and detritus (Page and Burr

                         1991).   It can often be found in association with the central silvery minnow

                         (Pflieger 1975).   Occasionally is associated with submerged aquatic

                         vegetation and other cover (Burr and Warren 1986).

   Key              Currently known to occur in six HUC8 watersheds, although most of these

   Habitat         records predate 1984.   The Bayou du Chien-Mayfield (HUC 08010201)

                         contains the largest number of records (17), only one of which is post-1984.

                           Nine records are known from the remaining five watersheds:   Lower Green

                         (HUC 05110005), Pond River (HUC 05110006), Lower Ohio (HUC

                         05140206), Lower Tennessee-Kentucky Lake (HUC 06040006), and Lower

                          Mississippi-Memphis (HUC 08010100).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range from 0% to 52% of stream miles surveyed

                         within these watersheds.   Although the Bayou du Chien-Mayfield HUC has

                          over 124 stream miles considered outstanding resource water, most of the

                         other watersheds have fewer than ten (Kentucky Division of Water 2002,

                         2004).


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Cypress Minnow                                                                                        Hybognathus hayi

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   CypressMinnow.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Dollar Sunfish                                                                                         Lepomis marginatus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    The dollar sunfish occurs in the Atlantic and Gulf coastal drainages, mostly

   Comment     below the Fall line, from Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, through the

                         Brazos River, Texas (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Current distribution also

                         extends up through western Tennessee and Kentucky in the former

                         Mississippi Embayment (Natureserve 2004).   This species has been

                         confused with similar-appearing young longear sunfish, resulting in

                         uncertainties concerning the distribution of populations in certain portions

                         of its range (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is known only from Murphy Pond, Hickman

   Comment     County, where it is uncommon; Terrapin Creek, Graves County, where it is

                          common; and the Clarks River system, where it is uncommon (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   Populations of the dollar sunfish in Kentucky are considered

                          stable, although restricted to the western portion of the state (D.

                         Eisenhour, Morehead State University, personal communication). It is

                         considered critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and

                         endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       The dollar sunfish is restricted to relatively clean, spring fed wetlands,

   Life History streams, and sloughs (Burr and Warren 1986).   It occurs over substrates of

                         sand or clay overlain with silt and organic debris (Burr and Warren 1986).  

                         This species is often associated with submerged aquatic vegetation,

                         hydrophytes, and overhanging vegetation along undercut banks (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   Spawning occurs from April to August in Alabama (Mettee

                         et al. 1996) and April to September in Florida (NatureServe 2004).   Nest

                         sites are constructed on hard sand substrates (Etnier and Starnes 1993).  

                         Growth is fairly slow and lifespan is approximately six years (Mettee et al.

                         1996).   Common food items include detritus, filamentous algae, and

                         terrestrial insects (Mettee et al. 1996).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the Obion Creek (HUC 08010202),   Lower

   Habitat         Tennessee-Kentucky Lake (HUC 06040006), and Bayou de Chien-

                         Mayfield (HUC 08010201) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life ranges from 28% (Obion Creek HUC) to 50%

                         (Lower Tennessee-Kentucky Lake HUC) of stream miles surveyed within

                         these watersheds.   Although the Bayou du Chien-Mayfield HUC has over


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Dollar Sunfish                                                                                         Lepomis marginatus

                         124 stream miles considered outstanding resource water, the other two

                         watersheds have fewer than ten (Kentucky Division of Water 2002, 2004).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   DollarSunfish.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Duskytail Darter                                                                                 Etheostoma percnurum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                           LE,               E                 G1               S1                  G1                        S1

                          PXN

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    Page and Burr (1991), prior to the species being officially described,

   Comment     presented the known range for duskytail darter to be Big South Fork

                         Cumberland River, Tennessee, and upper Tennessee River drainage, Virginia

                          and Tennessee and the fish to be rare and extremely localized.   Jenkins, in

                         Jenkins and Burkhead (1993), first described Etheostoma percnurum.  

                         Jenkins described the duskytail darter from two streams in Virginia and five

                         streams in Tennessee.   Jenkins and Burkhead (1993) considered the

                         duskytail darter endemic to the upper Tennessee and middle Cumberland

                         River drainage and reported on several relic populations.   The duskytail

                         darter is presented in Etnier and Starnes (1993) as Etheostoma sp. (this

                         darter was officially describes after their book went to press).   At that time

                         they reported only four known locations for this species in Tennessee.

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     The duskytail darter had not been found in Kentucky prior to 1995 when

   Comment     Burr and Eisenhour (1997) were contracted by the Kentucky Department of

                          Fish and Wildlife Resources to find this federally endangered darter in the

                         Big South Fork (Cumberland River) portion within Kentucky.   At that time

                         they discovered Etheostoma percnurum in five of eight sample sites from

                         the Kentucky portion of the Big South Fork and were most abundant near

                         the mouth of Troublesome Creek.   At that time, they considered the range

                         of the duskytail darter to be confined to 4.3 stream miles of the Big South

                         Fork in McCreary County, Kentucky (approximately 12 miles including

                         those recovered form the Tennessee portion of Big South Fork).   Eisenhour

                         and Burr (2000), when they first published this data added to the above

                         reported findings.   Based on their findings and extensive sampling by other

                         individuals, the known range of the duskytail darter was considered to be

                         13.6 miles of the Big South Fork Cumberland River, six sites in Tennessee

                         and six sites in Kentucky.   Unfortunately, after more extensive and

                         intensive surveys, ninety percent of the known range of the duskytail darter

                          in Kentucky was only about a 4.8-mile reach between the mouth

                         Troublesome Creek (the majority) and the mouth of Oil Well Branch.   The

                         population of Etheostoma percnurum in the Big South Fork is the only

                         known population in the Cumberland River drainage.   This darter is listed as

                          Endangered on both the Kentucky and Federal Endangered Species list

                         (Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, 2004).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Duskytail Darter                                                                                 Etheostoma percnurum

   Habitat /     In Tennessee, Etnier and Starnes (1993) thought the, then undescribed,

   Life History duskytail darter was found in habitats different than other closely related

                         members of the darters within the subgenus Catonotus.   The duskytail

                         darter was found to inhabit major streams ranging from large creeks to

                         moderately large rivers.   They were usually found in gently flowing pools,

                         generally in the vicinity of riffles.   The substrate where duskytail darters

                         were most apt to be found was large rocks strewn over bedrock or sand and

                         gravel.   Layman (1991), again prior to official species status, provided a

                         complete life history of the duskytail darter.   He found spawning, as with

                         all species within the subgenus Catonotus (see Etheostoma virgatum as

                         well) occurred under slab shaped stones during April-June.   Eggs are laid in

                         a single layer on the underside of these stones that had been chosen and

                         guarded by a male. Simon and Layman (1995) provided additional life

                         history information for the species when they discussed egg and larval

                         development.   Food habit findings provided by Layman (1991) showed that

                          the duskytail darter was primarily an insectivore.   Smaller duskytail darters

                          consumed microcrustaceans and chironomid larvae as well as an occasional

                         heptageniid nymph.   The diet of larger duskytail darters was chironomid

                         larvae (primarily), ephemeropteran nymphs, microcrustaceans, and

                         trichopteran larvae, with fish eggs present in some stomachs.   Eisenhour and

                          Burr (2000), because their findings included waters in Kentucky, provided

                         important life history and other pertinent information.   They confirmed the

                         duskytail darter preferred habitat to be clear, silt-free pools immediately

                         above riffles where they find cover and shelter under cobble and slab rocks.  

                         On 26 May 1998 they observed male duskytail darters guarding slab rocks

                         with complement of eggs ranging from 79-103 per “nest rock”.   These nests

                         were in 20-28 inches of water.   After examining morphological and other

                         evidence from Etheostoma percnurum across its range, Eisenhour and Burr

                         (2002) concluded that the Big South Fork population of the duskytail darter

                          to be an independent evolutionary unit.

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Big South Fork Cumberland River

   Habitat         (HUC 05130104) in McCreary County.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life include 90.0% of the 75.5 miles of stream assessed

                         within this watershed, and 52.3 stream miles are considered outstanding

                         resource water.   This is a very important watershed unit to protect.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Duskytail Darter                                                                                 Etheostoma percnurum

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   DuskytailDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow)

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Emerald Darter                                                                                         Etheostoma baileyi

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N              G4G5          S4S5                G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The emerald darter is common in the upper Kentucky and Rockcastle rivers,

   Comment     present in the middle Cumberland River and becoming less common in the

                         upper Cumberland River above Cumberland Falls (Burr and Warren 1986).  

                         This species is less common in the South Fork Cumberland River drainage

                         in Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993), where it has declined due to stream

                         degradation from mining.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     This species is generally distributed in the middle Cumberland River

   Comment     drainage from Rockcastle River upstream and upper Kentucky River

                         drainage from Red River upstream (Burr and Warren 1986). It is common in

                         both the upper Kentucky and Rockcastle rivers, but less common above

                         Cumberland Falls.

   Habitat /     Occurs in rocky pools and runs of creeks and small rivers (Etnier and

   Life History Starnes 1993). Spawning occurs from April to June at temperatures of

                         about 18-20°C in gravel-cobble raceways.   This species may be an

                         important intermediate host for several mussel species.

   Key              Currently known to occur in seven HUC8 watersheds in the upper

   Habitat         Kentucky and Cumberland River drainages. Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life ranges from 48.4% to 90.0% of streams surveyed

                         within these watersheds, in which up to 404.4 stream miles have been

                         recognized as outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water

                         2002).

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   EmeraldDarter.pdf

   Map            


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Emerald Darter                                                                                         Etheostoma baileyi

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier).   Burr and

                       Warren (1986)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts .   Burr and Warren (1986)

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment).   Burr and Warren (1986)

             4D     Oil and gas drilling operations   associated runoff.   Burr and Warren (1986)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

                       pesticides.   Burr and Warren (1986)

             4G     Chemical spills and contaminants (applied and accidental).   Burr and

                       Warren (1986)

             4K     Industrial waste discharge/runoff.   Burr and Warren (1986)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining.   Burr and Warren (1986)

             1B     Agriculture.   Burr and Warren (1986)

             1E      Silviculture.   Burr and Warren (1986)


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Firebelly Darter                                                                                Etheostoma pyrrhogaster

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G2               S1                  G2                        S1

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    The firebelly darter occurs in the Obion River drainage in northwestern

   Comment     Tennessee and a small area of adjacent southwestern Kentucky

                         (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is occasional and uncommon in Terrapin Creek,

   Comment     Graves County (Burr and Warren 1986).    It is considered critically

                         imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004 and endangered by the  

                         Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /     Inhabits sand- and gravel-bottomed pools of headwaters, creeks, and small

   Life History rivers. It is common in swifter currents with fine gravel substrate, but can

                         also be found in pools adjacent to habitat.   Eggs are thought be to attached

                         to submerged logs and snags. Spawning generally occurs in April and May.

                         Age range of breeding females is 1-2 years (NatureServe 2004).   Eggs are laid

                          singly on horizontal and vertical surface and they hatch in 6 – 8 days.   Life

                         span is 3 years.   Diet consists primarily of midge larvae (Etnier and Starnes

                         1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Obion Creek (HUC 08010202)

   Habitat         watershed (Terrapin Creek, Graves County).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting of aquatic life include 27.8% of stream miles surveyed within

                         this watershed.   It contains 1.7 stream miles regarded as outstanding

                         resource water (Kentucky Division of Water, 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.

   Statewide   FirebellyDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Firebelly Darter                                                                                Etheostoma pyrrhogaster

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Flathead Chub                                                                                           Platygobio gracilis

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The flathead chub is found in the Mackenzie and Saskatchewan river

   Comment     drainages, and Lake Winnipeg drainage, in Yukon, Northwest Territories,

                         Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia in Canada and in

                         17 states in the U.S. (NatureServe 2004).   Over its range it is common and

                         secure in the north (S4 and S5) and declining in the southern margin of its

                         range due to impacts of dams/reservoirs and stream channelization.   It is

                         listed as an S1 in Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, and

                         Oklahoma.   The flathead chub’s distribution in the southern part of it range

                         is restricted to Mississippi River proper from Illinois south and is localized

                         in Arkansas River drainage in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

                         (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     This species is know from only one locality in extreme western Kentucky

   Comment     in the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois (Burr and Warren 1986).   Burr and

                          Warren (1986) stated that additional attempts to collect this species farther

                          south in the Kentucky portion of the Mississippi River have been

                         unsuccessful. ).   It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe, 2004).

   Habitat /     Very little is known on the spawning habits of the flathead chub but

   Life History information indicate that spawning takes place during the summer (Scott

                         and Crossman 1973; Pflieger 1975).   It relies on flood flows to spawn

                         successfully with spawning occurring after rivers have subsided following

                         peak flows, when the temperature is warmer and the bottom is more stable.

                         The flathead chub occurs in the turbid swift flowing main channels of large

                         rivers over bottoms composed of sand and fine gravel and sometimes moves

                          into smaller streams to spawn (Scott and Crossman 1973; Pflieger 1975).

   Key              The only records for this species predate 1984, which include one from the

   Habitat         Lower Mississippi Memphis (HUC 08010100) and two from the Lower

                         Ohio (HUC 05140206).   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life

                         range from 0% (Lower Mississippi Memphis HUC) to 52% (Lower Ohio

                         HUC) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.   Both contain

                         limited sections regarded as outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division

                         of Water 2002).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Flathead Chub                                                                                           Platygobio gracilis

   Guilds           Large rivers in current.

   Statewide   FlatheadChub.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2G     Water level fluctuations

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns ( flow/temp regimes)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Frecklebelly Darter                                                                                    Percina stictogaster

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N              G4G5            S4                  G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The Frecklebelly darter is endemic to eastern and central Kentucky and a

   Comment     small portion of north-central Tennessee. In Kentucky, it is considered

                         stable, however in Tennessee it is considered critically imperiled

                         (NatureServe 2004). This darter inhabits upland streams of the Cumberland

                         Plateau and central portions of the Highland Rim.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Fairly common in the upper Kentucky River, including portions of the Red

   Comment     River, and the south fork of the Kentucky River (NatureServe 2004). It is

                         uncommon and very localized in distribution in the upper Green River.

                         Known to occur above the confluence of the Green and Little Barren rivers,

                         as well as the Barren River upstream of the confluence with Drakes Creek.

   Habitat /       Occurs in 3rd to 5th order creeks and medium sized rivers with moderate

   Life History gradients (NatureServe 2004).   Inhabits quiet water areas, especially slow

                         flowing pools, backwaters, and along vegetated riffle margins. Although

                         benthic in nature, this darter often swims in the mid-water portion of the

                         water column instead of near the bottom. It is commonly associtated with

                         submerged root masses along the shore. In the winter individuals may be

                         found in accumulations of dead leaves on the bottom. This species is

                         insectivorous and probably lives up to 3 years. Spawning occurs in the

                         spring and peaks from mid-March through mid-April. This species may be

                         an important intermediate host for several mussel species.

   Key              Known to occur in four HUC8 watersheds in the upper Green, Barren, and

   Habitat         Kentucky River drainages.   Habitat conditions for most streams surveyed in

                          the upper Kentucky and South Fork HUCs are fully supporting of aquatic

                         life (88.5% and 81.8%, respectively), but with no outstanding resource

                         waters.   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life in the Green and

                         Barren River drainages are 80.0% and 92.6% (respectively) of stream miles

                         surveyed within these watersheds.   Approximately 113 miles of the upper

                         Green River and 14.7 miles in the Barren River are considered outstanding

                         resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2000, 2004).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Frecklebelly Darter                                                                                    Percina stictogaster

   Statewide   FrecklebellyDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Golden Topminnow                                                                                  Fundulus chrysotus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    Coastal Plain (Atlantic and Gulf) from Santee River drainage, South Carolina

   Comment     to Trinity R. dr., Texas; former Mississippi Embayment north to

                         Kentucky and Missouri.   East of the Mississippi R., mostly restricted to

                         the lower Coastal Plain.   Common in Florida, localized and uncommon

                         elsewhere (Page and Burr 1991).   As the golden topminnow is secure in

                         most of its range, NatureServe indicates G5 as its global status.   However,

                         since the species is only localized and uncommon in Kentucky, Tennessee,

                         Missouri and Oklahoma they designated a status of S1 for the golden

                         topminnow populations in Kentucky.  

                         Etnier and Starnes (1993) stated that the golden topminnow is the only fish

                         species of the Reelfoot Fauna not found elsewhere in Tennessee.   They

                         thought this might indicate that the species was not formerly present in

                         Tennessee and invaded the state from Missouri swamplands via Reelfoot

                         Lakes formation during the New Madrid earthquake in 1812.   It has not

                         been collected in Missouri since 1946 despite repeated attempts (Pflieger,

                         1997).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     The first golden topminnows documented in Kentucky were collected in

   Comment     1970 from Reelfoot Lake, (Sisk 1973).   The first notable population

                         samples reported outside Reelfoot Lake were collected in 1973 when Sisk

                         (1973) reported a series of 14 (each date) from Open Pond, Fulton County.

                          In 1982, Warren and Cicerello (1983) attempted to collect it in the Open

                         Pond area, but found it and the surrounding area drained, cleared, and the

                         land being used for agricultural practices.   After extensive sampling in the

                         area the only population they found (24 June) was in Running Slough at

                         Ledford, Fulton County, Kentucky.   Based on their limited findings they

                         recommended the species be listed in the states endangered species

                         category.   Prior to that time, golden topminnows had been listed in the

                         special concern category (Branson et al. 1981).   Both Open Fork and

                         Running Slough are within the Reelfoot Lake drainage.   Since 1984 (personal

                          communication with Ron Cicerello-Kentucky State Nature Preserves

                         Commission) the golden topminnow has only been collected from Fish

                         Pond (in 1985 by Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission personnel)

                          and again at Running Slough (in 2000 by Kentucky Division of Water-

                         Mike Compton).   Burr and Warren (1986) commented that the species

                         probably re-invades other areas adjacent to Reelfoot Lake following periods


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Golden Topminnow                                                                                  Fundulus chrysotus

                         of drought.   The Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2000)

                         currently considers the golden topminnow endangered in Kentucky.

   Habitat /     In Kentucky the golden topminnow is restricted to floodplain lakes,

   Life History wetlands, sloughs, and ditches of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain where it

                         was found associated with submerged beds of aquatic plants near the

                         shoreline (Burr and Warren 1986).   As are most Fundulus, the golden

                         topminnow is a surface dweller.   Etnier and Starnes (1993) report it to

                         inhabit clear vegetated swamps and lakes and mentioned it was less

                         associated with vegetation than is the starhead topminnow.   They reported

                         that spawning had not yet been documented, but indicated that eggs were

                         deposited on vegetation and other underwater objects. They also cited

                         information relating to food habits, which is primarily insects taken from

                         the surface.   Other aspects relating to the biology of the golden topminnow

                         are not known.   Etnier and Starnes (1993) also indicated that the maximum

                         lengths of known Tennessee specimens of golden topminnows averaged

                         smaller than the maximum lengths given for the species in other parts of its

                         range.   Page and Burr (1991) indicated the habitat for the species (general,

                         entire range) as swamps, sloughs, vegetated pools and backwaters of

                         sluggish creeks and small to medium rivers.

   Key              All known populations, pre and post 1984, of the golden topminnow in

   Habitat         Kentucky (HUC-8) are located within HUC 08010202 (Obion Creek).   Of

                         the 28.7 miles of stream assessed within this HUC, 27.8% of the waters

                         were fully supporting, 56.0% partially supporting, 16.2% not supporting,

                         and 1.7 miles were designated as Outstanding Resource Waters (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2002).   However, one of the current and primary known

                         locations for the golden topminnow is Running Slough which was assessed

                         by the Kentucky Division of Water (2002, Figure 3) as Partially

                         Supporting.   This slough flows into the Reelfoot National Wildlife Refuge

                         (pg. 74, Kentucky Atlas and Gazetteer, 1997).   This refuge should help

                         protect Reelfoot Lake, its surrounding wetlands, and hopefully the native

                         plant and animal life found therein.

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   GoldenTopminnow.pdf

   Map            


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Golden Topminnow                                                                                  Fundulus chrysotus

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Goldstripe Darter                                                                                 Etheostoma parvipinne

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E              G4G5            S1                  G4                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The goldstripe darter occurs in 11 southern states, ranging from the

   Comment     Colorado River drainage (Alum Creek) in Texas to the Flint River in

                         Georgia, extending northward in the Mississippi River drainage to

                         southeastern Missouri and western Kentucky.   Populations also occur in

                         the Altahama River (Atlantic Slope) drainage in Georgia, the only

                         population occurring above the Fall Line. It is reported to be C\common in

                         western part of range, but less common and spotty in eastern part

                         (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend       

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is sporadic and seasonally rare.   Its known

   Comment     distribution in the state includes Terrapin and Powell creeks in Graves

                         County and Sugar Creek and Billie Branch in Calloway County (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe, 2004) and endangered by the Kentucky State Nature

                         Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /     Restricted to small lowland creeks, ditches, and wetlands.   In small gravel

   Life History and sand-bottomed creeks, individuals generally occur in shallow sluggish to

                          stagnant waters along undercut banks, tree roots, and piles of organic

                         debris.   In ditches and wetlands, individuals are generally associated with

                         soft mud or silt substrates in beds of submergent aquatic plants (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the Kentucky Lake (HUC 06040006) and the

   Habitat         Obion Creek (HUC 08010202) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life include 27.8% (Obion Creek HUC) and 56.0%

                         (Lower Tennessee HUC) of streams surveyed in these watersheds. Both

                         contain limited sections regarded as outstanding resource water (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   GoldstripeDarter.pdf

   Map            


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Goldstripe Darter                                                                                 Etheostoma parvipinne

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Gulf Darter                                                                                                Etheostoma swaini

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The gulf darter is distributed throughout the Gulf Coastal drainages from

   Comment     Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana   to Ochlockonee drainage, Florida and many

                         eastern tributaries to Mississippi River from Buffalo Bayou, Mississippi,

                         north to Obion system, Tennessee and Kentucky (Starnes 1980.   It is

                         generally distributed in the Coastal Plain of western Tennessee (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993), but reaches its northernmost distributional limit in

                         Kentucky, where it is confined to Terrapin and Powell Creeks of the Obion

                         River system (Burr and Warren, 1986).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     This species was first recorded in Kentucky by Bauer and Branson (1979)

   Comment     from Terrapin Creek in Graves County.   Burr and Mayden (1979) reported

                         additional records from Powell and Terrapin creeks, where it remains

                         occasionally to generally distributed and uncommon (Burr and Warren,

                         1986).   It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004)

                          and endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission

                         (2004).

   Habitat /     Burr and Mayden (1979) collected specimens from small to medium-size

   Life History creeks over sand and sometimes gravel bottom in riffles, and in areas

                         contained sticks, logs, and other debris.   Spawning occurs primarily in

                         March and April.   Females require clean-swept gravel in which to bury their

                          eggs.   Diet consists of an array of microcrustacea and aquatic insects (Etnier

                          and Starnes, 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Obion Creek (HUC 08010202)

   Habitat         watershed (Terrapin Creek, Graves County).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting of aquatic life include 27.8% of stream miles surveyed within

                         this watershed.   It contains 1.7 stream miles regarded as outstanding

                         resource water (Kentucky Division of Water, 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.

   Statewide   GulfDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Gulf Darter                                                                                                Etheostoma swaini

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Highland Rim Darter                                                                      Etheostoma kantuckeense

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G4               S4                  G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    This species is a member of the orangethroat darter complex distributed

   Comment     over a large part of the central United States.   Recently recognized as a

                         distinct species, the Highland Rim darter is one of three species endemic to

                         the upper Barren River   (Ceas and Page 1997).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Restricted to the upper Barren River system, where it currently appears to

   Comment     be stable.   However, like other narrow-range endemics in the orangethroat

                         darter complex, it is particularly vulnerable to habitat degradation and

                         pollution (Ceas and Burr 2002).

   Habitat /     This and other orangethroat darter group species occur in small (first to

   Life History fourth order) upland streams over gravel and cobble subtrates in swift

                         flowing riffles and runs.   During periods of low water, when riffles and runs

                         become dry, individuals will concentrate in isolated pools where they can

                         survive for extended periods of time, so long as the water does not become

                         stagnant.   Spawning occurs in early spring in sections of riffles or runs with

                         large expanses of loose, fine gravel.   Streams impacted by erosion and

                         sedimentation that have more imbedded or compacted substrates support

                         fewer individuals (Ceas and Burr, 2002).

   Key              Known to occur only in the Barren River (HUC 05110002).   Habitat

   Habitat         conditions fully supporting aquatic life include 92.7% of stream miles

                         surveyed within this watershed.   Nearly 15 stream miles in the Barren River

                          HUC are considered outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division of

                         Water 2004).

   Guilds           Upland headwater streams in pools.

   Statewide   HighlandRimDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Highland Rim Darter                                                                      Etheostoma kantuckeense

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Inland Silverside                                                                                            Menidia beryllina

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G5               S2                  G5                        S2

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The inland silverside is a euryhaline species occurring in both brackish and

   Comment     freshwater rivers and lakes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts from

                         Massachusetts to Veracruz, Mexico, northward through the Mississippi

                         River and major tributaries (mainly Arkansas and Red rivers) to southern

                         Illinois and eastern Oklahoma.   Some inland populations in California,

                         Oklahoma, and Missouri likely introduced.   Also introduced in Pecos River

                         drainage, New Mexico (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Prior to 1984, this species was limited to the Mississippi River (Pflieger

   Comment     1975) and adjacent floodplain lakes, most notably Reelfoot Lake (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   Since 1984, new observations have been recorded for

                         Kentucky and Barkley Lakes (lower Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers) in

                         western Kentucky (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Habitat /     The inland silverside is a schooling, surface species of large, moderately

   Life History clear rivers and reservoirs.   It apparently moves into quiet inshore areas

                         over sand and gravel during the night, returning to open water during the day

                          (Page and Burr 1991; Pflieger 1975).   Spawning occurs during late spring

                         and summer.   Eggs have been found attached to algae growth on the stems of

                          emergent vegetation and hatch in 4-30 days at temperatures of 13-34 C.  

                         Most spawn and die following their 2nd summer of life, but a few survive

                         through their second winter (Pflieger 1975).

   Key              Currently known from five HUC watersheds along the Mississippi, Ohio,

   Habitat         and lower Tennessee and Cumberland River drainages.   Habitat conditions

                         fully supporting aquatic life range from 0 to 52% of stream miles surveyed

                         within these watersheds, which contain limited sections considered

                         outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Large rivers in slackwater.

   Statewide   InlandSilverside.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Inland Silverside                                                                                            Menidia beryllina

Conservation Issues

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5B     Predation from native species


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Kentucky Arrow Darter                                                             Etheostoma sagitta spilotum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N              G3G4            S4                  G3                        S4

                                                                  T3T4

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The Kentucky arrow darter is endemic to the upper Kentucky River system

   Comment     (Burr and Warren 1986).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     This species is endemic to the upper Kentucky River system.   It is

   Comment     occasional to locally common in headwater streams in the North, Middle

                         and South Forks of the Kentucky River (Burr and Warren 1986).

   Habitat /       Generally occurs in headwater creeks, but juveniles and occasionally adults

   Life History may be taken in streams.   This species usually occupies sluggish pools and

                         areas above or below riffles over substrates of bedrock, cobble, and pebble;

                         individuals tend to avoid fast currents (Burr and Warren 1986).    Spawning

                         occurs principally during April when water temperatures are near 13C.  

                         Sexual maturity is reached at age 1.   Females contain 67-265 mature eggs.  

                         Spawning occurs beneath or near rocks where males have fanned out a

                         depression in the substrate; males defend the nests.   Diet includes mayflies,

                         dipterans, caddisflies, stoneflies, and beetle larvae (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Known to occur in four HUC8 watersheds in the upper Kentucky River

   Habitat         basin.   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life range from 48.4%

                         (North Fork Kentucky River HUC 05100201) to 88.5% (Upper Kentucky

                         River HUC 05100204) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds,

                         none of which contain outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of

                         Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland headwater streams in pools.

   Statewide   KentuckyArrowDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Kentucky Arrow Darter                                                             Etheostoma sagitta spilotum

Conservation Issues

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Kentucky Darter                                                                                 Etheostoma rafinesquei

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G4               S4                  G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The Kentucky darter is endemic to the upper Green River and lower Barren

   Comment     River (Burr and Warren 1986).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     This species occurs in the upper Green and Gasper River (Barren River

   Comment     tributary), Kentucky. In the upper Green River drainage, it is common in

                         tributaries of the Nolin and Little Barren Rivers, and Russell, Brush,

                         Pitman, and Goose Creeks. In the Gasper River drainage, it is most common

                          in headwater tributaries (Natureserve 2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits upland creeks and streams primarily in the Highland Rim.   This

   Life History species prefers rocky bottomed pools and pool margins, but during fall and

                         spring may be found at the margins of riffles associated with emergent

                         vegetation (Burr and Warren 1986).   Spawning occurs during late March-

                         early May.   Females produce several hundred eggs divided among multiple

                         clutches.   Spawning can be negatively impacted by high discharge and

                         stream temperatures above about 21.5 C (NatureServe 2004).

   Key              Known to occur primarily in the Upper Green (HUC 05110001), with a

   Habitat         few records also in the Barren River (HUC 05110002).   Habitat conditions

                         fully supporting aquatic life range include 55.8% of stream miles surveyed

                         in the Upper Green River and 92.6% in the Barren River watersheds.  

                         Number of stream miles recognized as outstanding resource waters include

                         113.1 in the The Upper Green and 14.7 for the Barren River drainages  

                         (Kentucky Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Upland headwater streams in pools.

   Statewide   KentuckyDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Kentucky Darter                                                                                 Etheostoma rafinesquei

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Lake Chubsucker                                                                                          Erimyzon sucetta

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G5               S2                  G5                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The lake chubsucker occurs from southeastern Virginia to southern Florida

   Comment     to the Guadalupe River in Texas, and northward through the Mississippi

                         Valley and Great Lakes. This species is sporadic in the North and common

                         on the lower Coastal Plain (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend       

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is sporadic and rare in the lower Green River,

   Comment     Tradewater River, Bayou du Chien, Mayfield Creek, Obion Creek, and

                         Ohio River near Paducah (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is considered

                         imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and threatened by the Kentucky

                          State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /     Generally associated with lentic, lowland habitats such as floodplain lakes

   Life History and wetlands, in dense beds of submergent and floating aquatic plants;

                         rarely enters creeks, streams, or rivers (Burr and Warren 1986).   Spawning

                         occurs over gravel areas in streams or in still water over vegetation from

                         March through July depending on latitude.   Fecundity ranges from 3,000 to

                         20,000 eggs per female.   Food consists of microcrustacea and midge larva.  

                         Life span is 5 or 6 years.   Maximum size to 394 mm (15.5 inches) total

                         length and nearly 1 kg (2.2 lbs) (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in nine HUC8 watersheds:   Rough River (HUC

   Habitat         05110004), Lower Green (HUC 05110005), Pond River (HUC 05110006),

                         Lower Cumberland (HUC 05130205), Lower Ohio - Bay (HUC 05140203),

                          Lower Ohio (HUC 05140206), Lower Tennessee-Kentucky Lake (HUC

                         06040006), Lower Mississippi – Memphis (HUC 08010100), and the

                         Bayou De Chien – Mayfield (HUC 08010201).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range from 0% (Lower Mississippi – Memphis

                         HUC) to 74.9% (Lower Tennessee-Kentucky Lake HUC) of stream miles

                         surveyed within these watersheds.   A total of 154.6 miles of stream

                         surveyed within these watersheds are considered outstanding resource

                         waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002 and 2004).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Lake Chubsucker                                                                                          Erimyzon sucetta

   Statewide   LakeChubsucker.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Lake Sturgeon                                                                                        Acipenser fulvescens

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E              G3G4            S1                  G3                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Prior to 1900, the Lake sturgeon was abundant and fairly widespread in

   Comment     rivers and lakes from southern Canada to the southeastern U.S.

                         (NatureServe 2004). It inhabits large river and lake systems primarily in the

                         Mississippi River, Hudson Bay and Great Lakes basins. By the early

                         1900’s populations had been greatly reduced as a result of over-fishing,

                         habitat loss, construction of dams, and pollution. Over the years, this

                         species has undergone substantial population declines througout its range

                         and may be in serious trouble if over-fishing and habitat destruction

                         continues. It is currently listed as threatened or endangered in 19 of 20

                         states within its original range (http://midwest.fws.gov/

                         alpena/sturgeon.htm). It is now believed to be extirpated in six states,

                         critically imperiled in ten, imperiled in three and vulnerable in two.

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     This species formerly occurred in the main channels of the Ohio,

   Comment     Mississippi, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers (Burr and Warren 1986).

                         Clay (1975) indicated that this sturgeon was probably found throughout

                         most of Kentucky’s larger rivers. Today no permanent populations exist in

                         Kentucky, only transients (Burr and Warren 1986). The placement of

                         navigation dams in the Ohio River essentially rendered habitat unsuitable for

                          the Lake sturgeon (Trautman 1981). Burr and Warren (1986) reported eight

                          pre-1950 records and 12 post-1950 records (Ohio River, 8; Mississippi

                         River, 3; Cumberland River, 1) for this species in Kentucky. Since 1984,

                         four records have been reported for the Ohio River. The Kentucky State

                         Nature Preserves Commission (2004) recognizes this species as endangered.

   Habitat /       This species inhabits the bottoms of large clean rivers and lakes, and prefers

   Life History deep mid-river areas and pools with water depth ranging between 13 and 30

                          feet over firm sand, gravel, or rock (Pflieger 1975). The oldest individual

                         was reported to be 154 years of age and weighing 207 pounds. .   Spawning

                         occurs from late April to mid-May with water temperatures ranging

                         between 55 and 73°F (NatureServe 2004). Males and females congregate on

                         outside bends over rocks/boulders in water between 1 and 15 feet in depth.

                         Eggs are broadcast over the substrate adhering to the rocks. One female can

                         lay between 50,000 and 700,000 eggs that hatch in 5 to 8 days depending on

                          the water temperature. Young fish feed mainly on insect larvae whereas


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Lake Sturgeon                                                                                        Acipenser fulvescens

                         adult fish have been known to add crayfish, snails, clams, leeches, and

                         occasionally small fish to their diet

                         (http://midwest.fws.gov/alpena/sturgeon.htm). Like other sturgeons, the

                         lake sturgeon is late to mature, slow growing, and has a low reproductive

                         rate. Males typically spawn for the first time at age 13 and females at 19

                         years of age. Males may spawn once every two years and females every 4

                         to 8. It could take up to 14 years for a population to double in size (Froese

                         and Pauly 2004). These reproductive characteristics make the lake sturgeon

                         extremely vulnerable to over exploitation.

   Key              Since 1984, four records for this species have been reported from the Ohio

   Habitat         River that lie within four different HUC8 units.   The most recent record is

                         from the Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (HUC 05090201) watershed, in which

                         nearly 83% of the streams surveyed were fully supporting of aquatic life.  

                         The other three records further downstream in the Ohio River include the

                         Lower Ohio-Bay (HUC 05140203), Lower Ohio (HUC 05140206), and

                         Highland-Pigeon (HUC 05010202) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range from none (Highland-Pigeon HUC) to 51.5%

                         (Lower Ohio HUC).   All contain limited sections regarded as outstanding

                         resource water (Kentucky Division of Water 2002, 2004).

   Guilds           Large rivers in current.

   Statewide   LakeSturgeon.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5J       Incidental mortality due to commercial fishing/musseling (mortality and

                       overharvest)

             5K     Lack of suitable habitat for spawning, nesting, or breeding

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Least Madtom                                                                                         Noturus hildebrandi

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The least madtom is found in tributaries of the Mississippi River from the

   Comment     Homochitto River, southern Mississippi, to Terrapin Creek, southwestern

                         Kentucky (Natureserve 2004).   Populations are considered abundant and

                         stable (Natureserve 2004), although the Kentucky population is confined to

                          a small range (D. Eisenhour, Morehead State University, personal

                         communication).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Found in Terrapin Creek, Graves County, where it occurs as a waif from a

   Comment     larger population in the North Fork Obion River in adjacent Tennessee

                         (Burr and Warren 1986).   The least madtom is abundant and stable in

                         Terrapin Creek, although confined to a small range (D. Eisenhour, Morehead

                          State University, personal communication).   It is considered critically

                         imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and endangered by the

                         Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Occurs in lowland creeks and small rivers across its range (NatureServe).   In

   Life History the south, it occupies relatively shallow, clear riffles with moderate current.

                          In the north, it is found in moderately deep streams with a slow current

                         over bottoms of shifting sand (NatureServe 2004).   This species typically

                         associates with submerged brush or logs (NatureServe 2004).   Spawning

                         occurs from mid-June through early-July (Etnier and Starnes 1993).  

                         Females may spawn more than once per year.   Males build nests under

                         snags or similar organic cover (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   If available, they

                         will also use slabrock, mussel shells, or discarded beverage containers

                         (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Food items primarily consist of midge and

                         caddis larvae as well as mayfly and stonefly nymphs (Etnier and Starnes

                         1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Obion Creek (HUC 08010202)

   Habitat         watershed (Terrapin Creek, Graves County).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting of aquatic life include 27.8% of stream miles surveyed within

                         this watershed.   It contains 1.7 stream miles regarded as outstanding

                         resource water (Kentucky Division of Water, 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Least Madtom                                                                                         Noturus hildebrandi

   Statewide   LeastMadtom.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5K     Lack of suitable habitat for spawning, nesting, or breeding

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Longhead Darter                                                                                  Percina macrocephala

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G3               S1                  G3                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The longhead darter is rare and highly localized across its range and may

   Comment     show a cyclic abundance pattern (Natureserve 2004).   This range has

                         included eight states along the Ohio River Basin (Kentucky, New York,

                         North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia)

                          but populations may be extirpated in North Carolina and Ohio

                         (Natureserve 2004).   The longhead darter is considered common in New

                         York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia.   Populations are stable in Kentucky,

                          but may be declining in Virginia and Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993;

                         Natureserve 2004).   In the southern part of its range, there have been few

                         areas where range or abundance has improved in recent years (Natureserve

                         2004).   Some northern populations, however, may be more abundant than

                         previously thought (Natureserve 2004).   It appears that general fish surveys

                          may be missing this species due to sampling methods.   Concerted effort to

                         collect the longhead darter in recent years has been more successful in

                         collecting individuals (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     This species is considered sporadic and rare in the upper Barren and upper

   Comment     Green rivers.   It is probably the most common in the upper Barren River

                         and Kinniconick Creek (Burr and Warren 1986).   The Cumberland and

                         Kentucky rivers have each produced a single record of this species but these

                          populations are considered extirpated at this time.   Populations are

                         considered stable in Kentucky, but extremely rare (D. Eisenhour, Morehead

                         State University, personal communication).

   Habitat /       Inhabits warm, clear, and relatively deep upland streams and rivers (Burr

   Life History and Warren 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; NatureServe 2004).   Primary

                          habitat is gently flowing pools with brush, aquatic vegetation, or boulders

                         (NatureServe 2004).   Individuals live mostly suspended in the water column

                          and are associated with different types of structure (Jenkins and Burkhead

                         1993; NatureServe 2004).   It is generally intolerant of low water quality,

                         and most often found in streams with low turbidity and minimal siltation

                         (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Spawning occurs in shallow, gravel/cobble riffles

                         where eggs can be buried in the gravel/cobble substrate (NatureServe 2004).  

                         During the winter, individuals will move into deeper pools (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993).   Diet consists primarily of crayfish and insect larvae.  


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Longhead Darter                                                                                  Percina macrocephala

                         Lifespan is 3 to 4 years (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Upper Green (HUC 05110001) and

   Habitat         Barren River (HUC 05110002) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range include 55.8% of stream miles surveyed in the

                         Upper Green River and 92.6% in the Barren River watersheds.   Number of

                         stream miles recognized as outstanding resource waters include 113.1 in the

                         The Upper Green and 14.7 for the Barren River drainages   (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   LongheadDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2D     Woody debris removal

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Northern Cavefish                                                                                     Amblyopsis spelaea

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G3               S3                  G3                        S3

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The northern cavefish is restricted to limestone composite subterranean

   Comment     waters and has been found in approximately 62 sites from the Mammoth

                         Cave region of Kentucky north to southern Indiana (NatureServe 2004).   

                         All of the Kentucky sites are cave streams while 11 of the 45 Indiana sites

                         were springs and/or spring basins with the rest being cave streams  

                         (NatureServe 2004).   Population estimates predict at least 5600 individuals

                         between the Kentucky and Indiana populations but limited habitat

                         accessibility makes these estimates conservative (NatureServe 2004).  

                         Restriction to such a limited habitat makes the northern cavefish highly

                         vulnerable to human and natural events that affect ground water

                         (NatureServe 2004).    Although information is limited, the global trend in

                         northern cavefish distribution appears to be stable.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, the northern cavefish occurs from Mammoth Cave, Edmonson

   Comment     County, north to caves in Hardin, Meade, and Breckenridge Counties (Burr

                          and Warren 1986).   Distribution may be limited by competition with the

                         southern cavefish (Froese and Pauly 2004).   Distribution trends within

                         Kentucky appear to be stable or slightly declining with similar locations

                         found between pre-1984 and post-1984 data (D. Eisenhour, Morehead State

                          University, personal communication).

   Habitat /       The northern cavefish is an obligate cave dweller, inhabiting cool (8-17 ° C)

   Life History hypogean streams with mixed mud/rock substrates in shoals and mixed

                         sand/silt substrates in pools (Burr and Warren 1986).   Such habitats are

                         highly vulnerable to human and natural disturbances.   The northern cavefish

                         is a branchial brooder with low reproductive capacity (NatureServe 2004).  

                         Breeding occurs during high water periods from February through April.  

                         Eggs and young are carried in the gill chamber for 4 to 5 months.   Only 10%

                         of the females breed per year (NatureServe 2004).   Northern cavefish feed

                         primarily on copepods, gammarids, and isopods (Clay 1975).

   Key              Known to occur only in Blue-Sinking (HUC 05140104), Upper Green

   Habitat         (HUC 05110001), and Rough River (HUC 05110004) drainages.   Habitat

                         conditions fully supporting aquatic life range include 54% of stream miles

                         surveyed in the Blue-Sinking, 80% in the Upper Green River, and 79% in


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Northern Cavefish                                                                                     Amblyopsis spelaea

                         the Barren River watersheds.   Number of stream miles recognized as

                         outstanding resource waters include 113.1 in the Upper Green River

                         drainage   (Kentucky Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Cave streams.

   Statewide   NorthernCavefish.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns ( flow/temp regimes)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5B     Predation from native species

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4H     Confined animal operations

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Northern Madtom                                                                                       Noturus stigmosus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G3            S2S3                G3                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The northern madtom is known to occur in the Ohio River basin in Illinois,

   Comment     Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virgina and in tributaries

                         of western Lake Erie drainage in Michigan and Ontario. This species is

                         sporadic and uncommon, disappearing at the margins of its range and is rare

                         in main channels of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers (Page and Burr 1991,

                         Thomas and Burr 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, the northern madtom is sporadic and uncommon in the upper

   Comment     Kentucky and upper Big Sandy River drainages.   It is occasional and locally

                         common in the Salt and Licking River drainages.   A few records exist from

                         the mainstem of the Ohio River   (Burr and Warren 1986).   Extensive

                         statewide surveys conducted in the 1980’s and 1990’s led to the conclusion

                         that in general populations were in fair to good condition (NatureServe

                         2004), with good populations in the Licking River (D. Eisenhour, Morehead

                          State University, personal communication).

   Habitat /       The northern madtom can be found in large streams to big rivers where it

   Life History favors gravel and cobble substrates swept clean by moderate to swift

                         current.   It avoids areas that have been affected by extreme siltation

                         (NatureServe 2004).   Like other catfishes, the northern madtom is a cavity

                         nester, preferring to lay eggs under flat stones in current but will use

                         accumulated unnatural debris such as cans and small boxes (Taylor 1969).

   Key              Currently known to occur in seven HUC8 units in the Ohio, Salt, upper

   Habitat         Kentucky, Licking, and upper Big Sandy River drainages.   Habitat

                         conditions fully supporting aquatic life range from 20% (Levisa Fork HUC

                         05070202) to 71% (Rolling Fork HUC 05140103) of streams surveyed

                         within these watersheds.   The Licking River drainage is the only one with a

                         significant portion of outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of

                         Water 2002).

   Guilds           Medium to large streams.

   Statewide   NorthernMadtom.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Northern Madtom                                                                                       Noturus stigmosus

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Olive Darter                                                                                                Percina squamata

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G3               S1                  G3                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The olive darter is restricted to upland rivers primarily in the Blue Ridge

   Comment     and Cumberland Plateau portions of the upper Tennessee and Cumberland

                         River drainages (Etnier and Starnes 1993). This species has been collected in

                          Kentucky, Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee.   The olive darter once

                         inhabited the lower reaches of these river systems, but due to river

                         maturation, it is now limited to the upper reaches (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

                           Although this species can be locally common, populations in general are

                         declining globally (NatureServe 2004).   Due to a preference for swift

                         current, sampling is difficult much of the known distributional information

                         is dated and difficult to access.   Past collections show eight documented

                         occurrences in Kentucky (only two stream systems), 18   in North Carolina,

                          and a total of 30 for Tennessee, Georgia, and North Carolina (Natureserve

                         2004). The olive darter is presumed extirpated from several North Carolina

                         streams (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species has been collected only in the Rockcastle and Big

   Comment     South Fork of the Cumberland River drainage. (Burr and Warren 1986;

                         Natureserve 2004).   Extensive recent collecting activity in the Rockcastle

                         River has turned up only two specimens (M. Compton, KY Division of

                         Water, personal communication), supporting suspicions that populations

                         persist in low densities.

   Habitat /     The olive darter inhabits rocky areas with swift current in small to medium

   Life History upland river systems (Burr and Warren 1986; NatureServe 2004).   Typical

                         habitat includes strong chutes with rubble and boulders in high gradient

                         streams, or in deeper downstream portions of gravel riffles in streams of

                         moderate gradient (Burr and Warren 1986; NatureServe 2004).   Individuals

                         have also been found in shallow pools with gravel or rocky bottoms

                         (NatureServe 2004).   These narrow habitat requirements may contribute to

                         low vagility.   Areas of low gradient runs, pools, or impoundments may

                         hinder distribution (NatureServe 2004).   Spawning occurs from mid-May to

                          late-July (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Lifespan is approximately 4 years.  

                         Principal   food items include microcrustacea and aquatic insect larvae (Etnier

                          and Starnes 1993).   This species is particularly vulnerable to pollution and

                         siltation (NatureServe 2004).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Olive Darter                                                                                                Percina squamata

   Key              Recently collected only from the Rockcastle River (HUC 05130102).  

   Habitat         Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life include 82% of stream miles

                          surveyed within this watershed, which contains 121.4 stream miles

                         recognized as outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water

                         2004).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   OliveDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff


CLASS        Actinopterygii

Paddlefish                                                                                                     Polyodon spathula

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G4               S4                  G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend      The Paddlefish is a wide-ranging species in central and eastern North America,

   Comment     once common throughout much of the Mississippi River Basin, Gulf Coastal

                         drainages, and formerly in Lake Erie (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Because the

                         Paddlefish is common in the international caviar trade, in 1992 the Convention on

                         International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

                         adopted a U.S. proposal to regulate trade in this species under CITES Appendix II

                          (Rasmussen and Graham 1998).  Although it is considered apparently secure by

                         NatureServe (2008), the Paddlefish is listed as vulnerable on the American

                         Fisheries Society list of imperiled freshwater and diadromous fishes of North

                         America due to 1) present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of

                          the species’ habitat or range, and 2) over-exploitation for commercial,

                         recreational, scientific, or educational purposes including intentional eradication or

                          indirect impacts of fishing (Jelks et al. 2008).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend       Burr and Warren (1986) considered this species to be occasional in the

   Comment     Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee, Cumberland, Green, Salt, Kentucky, and Licking

                         rivers and lower Bayou du Chien.   It was initially assigned to a conservation

                         status category of special concern in a list of state endangered, threatened, or

                         rare fishes (Branson et al. 1981), but was later removed because it was thought

                         to be more common that previously believed (Burr and Warren 1986).   Although

                         assigned a status of S4 (Apparently Secure) by NatureServe (2008), Kentucky

                         currently lacks solid information on the status of populations within the state.

                         There is ample evidence in most states that illegal harvest of Paddlefish for eggs

                         continues to be a problem that may lead to depleted stocks.   Because Paddlefish

                         move freely through large rivers in the Mississippi River Basin, the Mississippi

                         Interstate Cooperative Resource Association (MICRA) was established in 1991,

                         to provide an interjurisdictional fishery management framework and conduct

                         cooperative basinwide stock assessments (Rasmussen and Graham 1998).

   Habitat /       In Kentucky, the Paddlefish inhabits quiet or slow-moving waters of large and

   Life              medium-sized rivers, oxbows, backwaters, and impoundments rich in

   History          zooplankton on which it feeds.   Adults must have access to gravel bars subject to

                          sustained flooding during spring months for spawning (Burr and Warren 1986).

                         The species prefers depths greater than 1.5 m, seeking deeper water in late fall

                         and winter (Burkhead and Jenkins 1991). Individuals may congregate near

                         artificial structures (e.g., below dams) that create eddies and reduce current

                         velocity (Southall and Hubert 1984). Paddlefish have been reported to spawn in

                         fast shallow water over gravel bars, including significant tail water sections

                          below upstream impoundments (e.g., Stancill et al. 2002). In the lower

                          Cumberland and Tennessee rivers, larvae have been reported to drift from

                         Reservoir to reservoir (Wallus 1986).

Key                  Numerous occurrence records available for this species are from the Ohio River,

Habitat             including the following HUC8 units: Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio

                         Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Silver-Little

                         Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon

                         (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), and

                         Lower Ohio (05140206).   Although the Ohio River has been assessed and found

                         to fully support aquatic life (ORSANCO 2008), the entire river has been

                         impounded by a series of navigation locks and dams, which has also diminished

                         natural variation flow conditions in the lower reaches of tributaries. Various

                         sources of industrial and domestic pollution severely degraded water quality

                         during the first half of the 20th century, with some improvements made

                         following the establishment of regulatory measures such as the Federal Water

                         Pollution Control Act   Amendments of 1972 (Pearson and Krumholz 1984).  

                        

                         Records for this species are also available for the Lower Mississippi-Memphis

                         (08010100), and Bayou du Chien-Mayfield (08010201) watershed units. Sections

                         of the Mississippi River where this species has been found are impacted by

                         channel modifications made to enhance barge traffic.   No reach of the Mississippi

                         River or its tributaries in western Kentucky are rated as fully supporting aquatic

                         life.   Most (64%) offer only partial support, while 36% are considered non-

                         supportive (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

                        

                         Several records are available for the Lower Cumberland River (05130205),

                         Kentucky Lake (06040005), and Lower Tennessee River (06040006).   Habitat

                         conditions fully supporting aquatic life in the Four Rivers basins based on a

                         probability biosurvey and analysis were 17% of wadeable streams were fully

                         supporting of aquatic life use (Kentucky Division of Water 2008).  

                        

                         Two records exist for the Rough River (05110004) and Middle Green River

                         (05110003). Habitat conditions were found to be fully supporting of aquatic life

                         use in 28% of wadeable streams based on probabilistic (random) surveys in the

                         Green-Tradewater Basin Management Unit.  This level of support was higher in

                         comparison to the upper Cumberland River and Four Rivers basins (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2008).

                        

                         Several records are available for the Lower Kentucky River (05100205).   The

                         mainstem Kentucky River is impounded by a series of locks and dams extending

                         from the mouth upstream to the confluence of the South Fork. The resultant

                         pooling of the mainstem has resulted in the loss of Paddlefish spawning habitat

                         and prevents long-range movements that may be required to maintain populations

                         (Dillard et al. 1986).  

                        

                         Three records are available for the Licking River (05100101).   The Licking River

                         is free-flowing below Cave Run Lake and has a significant portion of outstanding

                         resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002); however, much of the

                         middle and lower sections of the watershed has been subjected to excessive

                         siltation from poor agricultural practices as well as sewage pollution (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).

 Gilds                Large rivers in current, Large rivers in slackwater.

   Statewide     Paddlefish.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2A     Navigational dredging/Commercial dredging

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2G     Water level fluctuations

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5P      Market hunting for human consumption

        Terrestrial habitat degradation

             3H     Habitat loss outside of Kentucky


CLASS        ACTINOPTERYGII

Palezone Shiner                                                                                        Notropis albizonatus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                           LE                E                 G2               S1                  G2                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Two extant populations of the palezone shiner occur in the Paint Rock

   Comment     River (a Tennessee River tributary), Alabama and the Little South Fork of

                         the Cumberland River, Kentucky (Natureserve 2004).   Two other historical

                         populations have been extirpated.    Palezone shiner populations have

                         primarily been fragmented through impoundment (Natureserve 2004).  

                         Distributions have also been reduced from stream channelization and general

                          deterioration of water quality from siltation and other pollutants

                         (Natureserve 2004).   Limited distribution makes this species vulnerable to

                         continued extirpation (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is known only from the Little South Fork

   Comment     Cumberland River in Wayne County.   It was judged to be most abundant in

                         a 6-mile reach of the Little South Fork (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

                         1997).   Past collections found the species in Marrowbone Creek,

                         Cumberland County, but this population is considered extirpated (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   Within the Little South Fork Cumberland River, populations

                          appear to be stable with decent abundance (D. Eisenhour, Morehead State

                         University, personal communication).

   Habitat /       The palezone shiner occurs in flowing pools and runs of upland streams

   Life History that have permanent flow; clear, clean water; and substrates of bedrock,

                         cobble, pebble, and gravel mixed with clean sand (U.S. Fish and Wildlife

                         Service 1997).   Peak spawning occurs from June to early July (U.S. Fish

                         and Wildlife Service 1997).   Although ichthyologists have known about the

                         palezone shiner for 20 years, very little is known about its biology (U.S.

                         Fish and Wildlife Service 1997).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Little South Fork Cumberland River

   Habitat         in the South Fork Cumberland (HUC 0513014) watershed, Wayne County.

                          Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life include 90% of the streams

                         surveyed within this watershed, and 52.3 stream miles are considered

                         outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).   This is a

                         very important watershed unit to protect.

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Palezone Shiner                                                                                        Notropis albizonatus

   Statewide   PalezoneShiner.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4D     Oil and gas drilling operations   associated runoff


CLASS        Actinopterygii

Pallid Shiner                                                                                                     Hybopsis amnis

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 X                 G4               S1                  G4                        N

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend      The pallid shiner occurs in the Mississippi River from Wisconsin and Minnesota,

   Comment     south to Louisiana and west to the Guadaloupe River in Texas (Clemmer 1980).  

                         Population declines have been documented over the past three decades,

                         particularly in the northern portions of its range (Clemmer 1980, Becker 1983,

                         Skelly and Sule 1983, Warren and Burr 1988, Kwak 1991, Pflieger 1997).  

                         Currently, the species is uncommon throughout the northern extent of its range

                         and stable in portions of the south, where it has been reported to be fairly

                         common (Natureserve 2008).   Recently, the pallid shiner was added to the

                         American Fisheries Society list of imperiled freshwater and diadromous fishes of

                         North America based on present or threatened destruction, modification, or

                         reduction of the species’ habitat or range (Jelks et al. 2008).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend       The pallid shiner is known from only six localities in the lower Tennessee, Green,

   Comment     and upper Cumberland basins in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986). Until

                         rediscovered in the South Fork Cumberland River in 2005 (Thomas 2006), the

                         pallid shiner was on the list of plants and animals presumed extinct or extirpated

                         from Kentucky (Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission 2005); the last

                         previous record was from Wolf Lick Creek (Middle Green River drainage) in

                         1970.   The species was collected again in the South Fork Cumberland River in

                         2006.   The pallid shiner is a species that potentially could have been overlooked in

                          recent collections because of its close similarity to other minnows (e.g., bigeye

                         chub and mimic shiner). Additional sampling at other known historic localities is

                         needed to determine the status of this species within the state.

   Habitat /       Habitat preferences for this species in Kentucky are poorly known (Burr and

   Life              Warren 1986).   In the South Fork Cumberland River, 17 individuals were

   History          collected along the margin of the stream lined with water willow (Justicia sp.);

                         substrate was a mixture of medium- to large-sized cobble, mixed with gravel and

                         sand (Thomas 2006).   In more southern parts of its range, the pallid shiner has

                         been reported to occur in medium to large streams and rivers in quite water at the

                          lower ends of sand bars over soft sand/silt substrates (Clemmer 1980, Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   Biology and life history of populations in Kentucky are unknown.

                          In the south, the species has been reported to spawn during late winter and early

                          spring; adults in reproductive condition have been observed during March in

                         Arkansas (Clemmer 1980), and during May in western Tennesee (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993).

   Key              Because this species has not been collected recently anywhere outside of the

   Habitat         South Fork Cumberland River, this watershed may currently provide the best

                         suitable habitat for this species in Kentucky.   In the South Fork Cumberland

                         River, habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life include 90% of the 75.5

                         miles of stream assessed within the watershed, and 52.3 stream miles are

                         considered outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division of Water 2002). Other

                          watersheds containing historic records are more impaired.   Habitat conditions in

                         these watersheds fully supporting aquatic life range from 49% in the Middle

                         Green River (HUC8 05110003) to 75% in the Lower Tennessee-Kentucky Lake

                         (HUC8 06040006) (Kentucky Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Medium to large streams, Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide     Pallid_Shiner.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2G     Water level fluctuations

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns (flow/temp regimes)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1B     Agriculture

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Pallid Sturgeon                                                                                      Scaphirhynchus albus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                           LE                E                 G1               S1                  G1                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The range of the pallid sturgeon is restricted to the main channels of the

   Comment     Missouri and lower Mississippi rivers from Montana to Louisiana (Froese

                         and Pauly 2004). It is considered to be critically imperiled in 13 states as its

                          numbers are extremely low throughout this range (NatureServe 2004). It

                         was placed on the Endangered Species Act list on September 6, 1990

                         (http://midwest.fws.gov/endangered/fishes/pallid_fc.html). In the late

                         1990’s, the population size of pallid sturgeon was estimated to be between

                         6,000 and 16,000 individuals, with 2,000-6,000 fish in the Missouri River

                         and its tributaries (NatureServe 2004). The single largest concentration of

                         non-hybridized pallid sturgeon is thought to be no more than 250 fish in the

                          Missouri and Yellowstone rivers in Montana and North Dakota.

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     There is only one substantiated record for the pallid sturgeon in Kentucky.

   Comment     Burr and Warren (1986) report it to be sporadic and rare in the main channel

                          of the Mississippi River. They report a single specimen caught in the

                         Mississippi River during November 1985 from Hickman County,

                         Kentucky. .   It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe,

                         2004) and endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission

                          (2004).

   Habitat /     The Pallid sturgeon is a large species (up to 6 feet in length and weighing 80

   Life History pounds) with a large flat shovel-like snout (NatureServe 2004). It inhabits

                         large turbid rivers with low to moderate gradients and strong free-flowing

                         currents. It occurs over firm gravel or sandy substrates, and are adapted to

                         living close to the bottom substrate in areas with a diversity of depths and

                         velocities (http://midwest.fws.gov/endangered/fishes/pallid_fc.html).

                         Specific habitats utilized include braided channels, sand bars and flats, and

                         gravel bars. The estimated time of maturity for males is 7-9 years, with a 2-

                         3 year pause between spawning runs. Females do not spawn for the first

                         time until 7-15 years of age, with periods of up to 10 years between

                         spawning runs. Life span has been estimated to be up to 50 years. The

                         oldest individual to-date was a 41-year-old female weighing 37.5 pounds

                         and containing 170,000 eggs. Diet includes aquatic insects, crustaceans,

                         mollusks, annelids, eggs of other fishes, and other fishes (NatureServe 2004).


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Pallid Sturgeon                                                                                      Scaphirhynchus albus

   Key              Currently known from a single specimen record in the Lower Mississippi-

   Habitat         Memphis HUC (08010100). Due to channel modifications made to enhance

                         barge traffic, the ability of streams to support life in this HUC has been

                         greatly diminished. No reach of the Mississippi River or its tributaries

                         within this HUC is able to fully support aquatic life. Most (64.2%) can

                         only partially support aquatic life, while 35.8% are considered to be non-

                         supportive (Kentucky Division of Water 2002). Only about 4 miles of

                         stream are considered to be outstanding resource waters.

   Guilds           Large rivers in current.

   Statewide   PallidSturgeon.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns ( flow/temp regimes)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5E      Hybridization with closely related species

             5F      Low population densities

             5J       Incidental mortality due to commercial fishing/musseling (mortality and

                       overharvest)

             5K     Lack of suitable habitat for spawning, nesting, or breeding


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Plains Minnow                                                                                      Hybognathus placitus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G4               S1                  G4                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Moderately widespread in streams in central North America.   The species

   Comment     has suffered substantial declines in some areas (Kansas, Nebraska,

                         Missouri, and portions of Oklahoma) in abundance and distribution.   It is

                         declining in the southern half of its range and is apparently stable in the

                         northern portions of the range.   If northern populations begin to decline the

                         rank should be reevaluated (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     Three records for this species prior to 1984 are from near the mouth of the

   Comment     Ohio River and further south along the Kentucky portion of the

                         Mississippi River.   Recent reports are that it is not threatened and possibly

                          stable (NatureServe 2004).   However, Etnier and Starnes (1993) reported it

                         to be uncommon in the Mississippi River main channel below the mouth of

                         the Missouri River.

   Habitat /     The plains minnow is most common in shallow runs and pools of creeks

   Life History and small to large rivers.   It is common and can be very abundant in the

                         Great Plains (Page and Burr 1991).   It lives in schools near the bottom and

                         can often be found in association with the western silvery minnow, silver

                         and flathead chubs, and the red, sand and emerald shiners (Pflieger 1975).   In

                          Kentucky, this species is restricted to the turbid main channel of the

                         Mississippi River, occurring over sandy bottom areas with current ( Burr

                         and Warren 1986).

                        

                         Little life history information is know about the plains minnow, however it

                         is thought to be a communal spawner during periods of high flow.  

                         Individuals are short-lived with most reproducing and dying during their

                         second summer (NatureServe 2004).

   Key              The only records for this species predate 1984, which include two from the

   Habitat         Lower Mississippi Memphis (HUC 08010100) and one from the Lower

                         Ohio (HUC 05140206).   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life

                         range from 0% (Lower Mississippi Memphis HUC) to 52% (Lower Ohio

                         HUC) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.   Both contain

                         limited sections regarded as outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division

                         of Water 2002).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Plains Minnow                                                                                      Hybognathus placitus

   Guilds           Large rivers in current.

   Statewide   PlainsMinnow.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2G     Water level fluctuations

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns ( flow/temp regimes)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

             4F      Urban runoff


CLASS        Actinopterygii

Redside Dace                                                                                         Clinostomus elongatus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G4            S3S4                G4                        S3

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend      The redside dace currently occupies a discontinuous distribution from the upper

   Comment     Susquehanna River drainage of New York and Pennsylvania, west through the

                         lower Great Lakes, Ohio, and upper Mississippi River basins to Iowa (now

                         extirpated) and Minnesota.   Disjunct populations have disappeared or are

                         declining in the eastern portion of its range and it is localized and very rare in the

                         west (Gilbert 1980, Page and Burr 1991, Natureserve 2008).   In Canada, it

                         occurs in only a few streams draining into Lake Ontario, Lake Erie and Lake

                         Huron in southern Ontario (Parker et al. 1988, Natureserve 2008).   Recently, the

                         redside dace was added to the American Fisheries Society list of imperiled

                         freshwater and diadromous fishes of North America based on present or

                         threatened destruction, modification, or reduction of the species’ habitat or range

                         (Jelks et al. 2008).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend       The redside dace reaches the southern extent of its range on the Western

   Comment     Allegheny Plateau of northeastern Kentucky, where it is occasional to locally

                         common in several tributaries of the North Fork of Licking River, Beaver Creek,

                         and Red River (Burr and Warren 1986, Meade et al. 1986).   Although these small,

                          isolated populations currently appear to be stable, lack of adequate protection

                         makes them vulnerable to habitat loss and degradation. In Wisconsin, Lyons et al.

                          (2000) associated extirpation of redside dace populations with introductions and

                         population expansions of the piscivorous brown trout into headwater habitats

                         used by the dace.   In Kentucky, several streams supporting redside dace are

                         stocked with rainbow and/or brown trout.

   Habitat /       Habitat requirements for this species are narrow and specific.   Streams

   Life              supporting populations share certain physiochemical characteristics, including

   History          cool and clear water of near neutral pH in forested watersheds with good canopy

                         cover.   Forest cover usually includes eastern hemlock and white laurel.  

                         Individuals are typically found in pools less than 2 m deep, in moderate current,

                         with gravel and sandy substrates, and minimal siltation (Burr and Warren 1986,

                         Meade et al. 1986).   The redside dace often spawns over gravel/pebble nests

                         constructed by other minnows, such as the creek chub.   Spawning occurs

                         during spring when water temperatures exceed 18 degrees Celsius (Koster,

                         1939).   Based on field and aquarium observations, the species has a habitat of

                         jumping several centimeters out of the water to catch insects; therefore, a large

                         portion of its diet consists of terrestrial insects (Schwartz and Norvell 1958).

   Key              This species currently persists in limited sections of the Licking River (HUC8

   Habitat         05100101) and Upper Kentucky (HUC8 05100204) watersheds.   In the Licking

                         River drainage, historic and recent records are available for ten streams

                         distributed along the Northern Forested Plateau Escarpment ecoregion near the

                         northwestern margin of the Allegheny Plateau.   Streams in this area are cool,

                         clear, and typically have moderate to high gradients with rocky substrates.  

                         Logging and recreation are important land uses in this region (Woods et al. 2002).

                           This portion of the Licking River drainage has not been as severely impacted as

                         the lower basin below Cave Run Lake, which has been subjected to excessive

                         siltation from poor agricultural practices as well as sewage pollution (Burr and

                         Warren 1986).  

                        

                         In the Red River drainage (Upper Kentucky), the species has been documented in

                          seven streams, all of which are generally are of high quality and were rated as

                         fully supporting of aquatic life by the Kentucky Division of Water (2000).   Land

                         within these watersheds is mostly rural and wooded; two-thirds of the Red River

                         drainage is managed by the U.S. Forest Service as part of the Daniel Boone

                         National Forest (Kentucky Water Research Institute 2001).  

                        

                         Because of the cool, high gradient character of streams containing redside dace,

                         they are also regarded as suitable waters for trout introduction.   Trout that have

                         been (and continue to be) stocked in several of these streams could potentially

                         diminish or extirpate redside dace populations through predation.

   Guilds           Upland headwater streams in pools.

   Statewide     Redside_Dace.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns (flow/temp regimes)

             2K     Transportation routes (fords and crossings)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5A     Predation from introduced species.   This has been linked to extirpation in

                       other states (see comments and citation above).

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow)

             5O     Bait collection.   A potential threat due to the colorful appearance of this

                       minnow.

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1C     Road construction

             1E      Silviculture

             1F      Recreational activities (atv, horseback riding)

 

CLASS        ACTINOPTERYGII

Redspotted Sunfish                                                                                       Lepomis miniatus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G5               S2                  G5                        S2

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    Formerly recognized as a subspecies of the spotted sunfish (Warren (1992),

   Comment     the redspotted sunfish ranges from the Mobile Basin west to the Rio

                         Grande and north through the Mississippi Basin in Illinois, including the

                         lowermost Ohio Basin.   It is common in many areas, but may have declined

                         in the northern part of its range due to deterioration of water quality and

                         loss of habitat (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Restricted to the western third of the state, where it is sporadic and

   Comment     uncommon in the lower Green River drainage (Pond and Mud Rivers) and

                         minor tributaries and oxbows along the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers

                         (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is considered imperiled in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe, 2004) and threatened by the Kentucky State Nature

                         Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /     Inhabits lowland streams, oxbow lakes, and wetlands typically over

   Life History substrates of sand and mud overlain with organic debris.   In streams it

                         occurs in backwater and pool habitats and in wetlands and oxbow lakes

                         along vegetated shorelines (Burr and Warren 1986).   Spawning occurs from

                         May through July, during which males construct single or colonial nests in

                         shallow water.   Diet consists primarily of insect larvae and microcrustacea

                         (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Although records exist in eight HUC watersheds, it is most common in the

   Habitat         Middle Green (HUC 05110003) and Bayou De Chien-Mayfield Creek

                         (HUC 08010201).   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life in

                         include 49% (Middle Green HUC) and 30% (Bayou du Chien-Mayfield

                         Creek HUC) of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.   In the

                         Bayou du Chien-Mayfield Creek HUC, 124.4 stream miles are considered

                         outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   RedspottedSunfish.pdf

   Map            

   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Redspotted Sunfish                                                                                       Lepomis miniatus

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

             2M     Valley fills

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5E      Hybridization with closely related species

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Relict Darter                                                                                        Etheostoma chienense

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                           LE                E                 G1               S1                  G1                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The relict darter is found only in Bayou du Chien Creek in Kentucky

   Comment     (NatureServe 2004). This species is federally listed as endangered.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     The relict darter is endemic to Bayou du Chien Creek in Kentucky

   Comment     (NatureServe 2004).   ).   It is considered critically imperiled in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe, 2004) and endangered by the Kentucky State Nature

                         Preserves Commission (2004).   Although populations appear to be

                         currently stable, limited distribution of this species makes it vulnerable to

                         any pollution event or landscape disturbance (NatureServe, 2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits small creeks over gravel, sand, and leaf litter substrates near fallen

   Life History branches, undercut banks, or over hanging vegetation (NatureServe 2004).

                         Spawning has been reported to occur in only one tributary to Bayou du

                         Chien.

   Key              Restricted to the Bayou du Chien (HUC 08010201) watershed.   Habitat

   Habitat         conditions fully supporting aquatic life include only 30.2% of all streams

                         surveyed in this watershed, while 37.0% is partially supportive (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2002). Almost one-third (32.8%) of all surveyed streams

                         are rated as non-supportive. Bayou du Chien Creek drainage has 124.4 miles

                          of streams designated as outstanding resource water due to the presence of

                         this federally listed endangered species.

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.

   Statewide   RelictDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Sawfin Shiner                                                                                                    Notropis sp. 4

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G4               S1                  G4                        S1

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    The sawfin shiner has a spotty distribution in the upper Tennessee and

   Comment     Cumberland River drainages in Alabama, Tennessee, Virginia, and Kentucky

                          (Natureserve 2004).   It is locally common and its distribution trend is

                         stable or unknown in different areas (Natureserve 2004).   Although this

                         species is not very threatened, it is negatively affected by impoundments

                         and reduced water quality (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is known only from the Big South Fork

   Comment     Cumberland River (Rock Creek), McCreary County; Pitman Creek, Pulaski

                         County; and Little South Fork Cumberland River, Wayne County (Burr and

                          Warren 1986).   It is locally common in the Little South Fork Cumberland

                         River, but rare elsewhere (Burr and Warren 1986).   This species was

                         extensively surveyed in the 1980’s and 1990’s, but it is difficult to collect

                         and identify (Natureserve 2004).   Its distribution trend is unknown (D.

                         Eisenhour, Morehead State University, personal communication).

   Habitat /       The sawfin shiner inhabits cool, clear upland streams on the eastern edge of

   Life History the highland rim and Cumberland Plateau (Burr and Warren).   Within these

                         streams, it can be found in quiet or gently flowing pools, backwaters, or

                         moderate runs over clean gravel and rubble as well as somewhat silted

                         substrates (Burr and Warren 1986; Etnier and Starnes 1993; NatureServe

                         2004).   Spawning probably occurs   from mid-May to at least early June in

                         upper Tennessee (NatureServe 2004).   Diet includes immature aquatic

                         insects such as midges, caddisflies, mayflies, and beetles (NatureServe

                         2004).   This species feeds on the bottom and in midwater (NatureServe

                         2004).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the South Fork Cumberland (HUC 05130104)

   Habitat         and Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (HUC 05130101) watersheds.  

                         Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life includes 90% of stream

                         miles surveyed in the South Fork Cumberland watershed, and 67% of

                         stream miles surveyed in the Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland

                         watershed.   Both watersheds contain extensive sections considered

                         outstanding resouce waters ((Kentucky Division of Water 2002).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Sawfin Shiner                                                                                                    Notropis sp. 4

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   SawfinShiner.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1B     Agriculture

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Shawnee Darter                                                                                  Etheostoma tecumsehi

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G1               S4                  G1                        S4

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    This species is a member of the orangethroat darter complex distributed

   Comment     over a large part of the central United States.   Recently recognized as a

                         distinct species, the Shawnee darter is restricted to the headwaters of the

                         Pond River (Green River Basin, Kentucky) encompassing an area of 450 sq

                         km (Ceas and Page 1997).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Restricted to the Pond River drainage in Christian, Todd and extreme

   Comment     southeastern Hopkins Counties in Kentucky.   A fuel spill and construction

                         of impoundments in this drainage have been attributed to declines in some

                         populations (Ceas and Page 1997).

   Habitat /     This and other orangethroat darter group species occur in small (first to

   Life History fourth order) upland streams over gravel and cobble subtrates in swift

                         flowing riffles and runs.   During periods of low water, when riffles and runs

                         become dry, individuals will concentrate in isolated pools where they can

                         survive for extended periods of time, so long as the water does not become

                         stagnant.   Spawning occurs in early spring in sections of riffles or runs with

                         large expanses of loose, fine gravel.   Streams impacted by erosion and

                         sedimentation that have more imbedded or compacted substrates support

                         fewer individuals (Ceas and Burr, 2002).

   Key              Known to occur only in the Pond River (HUC 05110006) drainage.   Habitat

   Habitat         conditions fully supporting aquatic life include only 20.1% of stream miles

                         surveyed within this watershed, none of which contain outstanding resource

                          waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in riffles.

   Statewide   ShawneeDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Shawnee Darter                                                                                  Etheostoma tecumsehi

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4G     Chemical spills and contaminants (applied and accidental)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


CLASS        Actinopterygii

Sicklefin Chub                                                                                          Macrhybopsis meeki

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 H                 G3               S1                  G3                        N

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend      The range of the sicklefin chub is confined to the Missouri River and Mississippi

   Comment     River below the Missouri River confluence (Pflieger 1997).   The species has been

                          reported to be relatively abundant in portions of the Missouri River, but much

                         less common in the Mississippi River (Pflieger 1997, Etnier and Starnes 1993).  

                         In the Mississippi River, it occurs primarily from western Kentucky (below

                         mouth of Ohio River) north to the mouth of the Missouri River. Records are rare

                         in the lower Mississippi River and are thought to be accidental occurrences (Ross

                          2001).   With the exception of Missouri, the sicklefin chub is listed as imperiled

                         to critically imperiled in states throughout its range (Natureserve 2008).   It was

                         listed as a federal candidate species in 1995 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

                         1995), and is listed as Endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves

                         Commission (2005).   The American Fisheries Society lists the species as

                         vulnerable based on present or threatened destruction, modification, or reduction

                         of the species’ habitat or range (Jelks et al. 2008).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend       Very few records are available for this species in the Mississippi River in western

   Comment     Kentucky.   This has been due mostly to difficulties with capturing small benthic

                         fishes in large river habitats.   Etnier and Starnes (1993) suggested that the species

                          is probably more common in the Mississippi River than records indicate.   Results

                          of recent surveys using benthic trawls in the Mississippi River support this

                         premise to some extent, but additional data are needed to assess long-term

                         population trends; short-term data suggest that this species is uncommon and

                         may be declining (Herzog 2004).

   Habitat /       This is a small, benthic minnow limited to the turbid waters of the main channel

   Life              of the Mississippi River in western Kentucky.   Recent benthic trawl surveys

   History          (2000-2001) produced individuals at a single location at Wolf Island (Herzog

                         2004).   According to Herzog (2004), sicklefin and sturgeon chubs generally

                         utilize similar habitats during particular times of the year (e.g., Febrary-March),

                         but partition themselves by age class, size, and species at other times.   The

                         sicklefin chub apparently occupies deeper and swifter water than the sturgeon

                         chub.   Like the sturgeon chub, it has characteristics typical of fishes adapted to

                         low light conditions of large turbid rivers, including reduced eyes partially

                         covered by skin and well-developed external taste buds.   The food habits of the

                         sicklefin chub are poorly known, but it is probably a bottom feeder relying on

                         taste to locate its food (Pflieger 1997).   Other aspects of its biology are

                         unknown, but it is thought to spawn in the spring based on young-of-year

                         individuals in collections taken during July from the Missouri River (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993, Pflieger 1997).

   Key              Records for this species are available for the Lower Mississippi-Memphis (HUC8

   Habitat         08010100) and Lower Ohio (05140206) watershed units; in the latter unit, two

                         historic records are available, including one from the lower Ohio and one from

                         the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois (Burr and Warren 1986).   Sections of the

                         Mississippi River where this species has been found are impacted by channel

                         modifications made to enhance barge traffic.   No reach of the Mississippi River

                         or its tributaries in western Kentucky are rated as fully supporting aquatic life.  

                         Most (64%) offer only partial support, while 36% are considered non-supportive

                         (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Large rivers in current.

   Statewide     Sicklefin_Chub.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2A     Navigational dredging/Commercial dredging

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2G     Water level fluctuations

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns (flow/temp regimes)

 

CLASS        ACTINOPTERYGII

Slender Madtom                                                                                                Noturus exilis

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    The slender madtom is found in 13 states along the Green, Cumberland,

   Comment     Mississippi, and Tennessee river drainages (Natureserve 2004).   This

                         species is considered vulnerable or imperiled in eight of these states and

                         secure in the other five (Natureserve 2004).   Global distribution trend data

                         is unknown.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Known from ten localities in Kentucky.   It is sporadic and uncommon in the

   Comment     lower Cumberland, upper Green, and Barren Rivers (Burr and Warren

                         1986).   Prior to 1984, records were documented from four different HUC8

                         watersheds, but has since been observed in only one.   Although a long-term

                         decline in distribution is evident in Kentucky, the short-term trend may

                         have stabilized, but this remains uncertain. (D. Eisenhour, Morehead State

                         University, personal communication).

   Habitat /     Inhabits   riffles and flowing pools of small to medium-size clear streams and

   Life History rivers over pebble and gravel bottoms (Burr and Warren 1986).   This

                         species may also occur along wave-swept margins of large reservoirs among

                         rocks and other cover (Burr and Warren 1986).   Individuals will hide

                         beneath rocks during the day and forage at night (Pflieger 1975).   Common

                         food items are aquatic insects and small crustaceans (Mettee et al. 1996).  

                         Spawning may occur as early as late spring and extend through July and

                         August (NatureServe 2004).   Compact clusters of eggs are deposited in

                         shallow excavations beneath rocks (Pflieger 1975).   Lifespan is

                         approximately five years (Mettee et al. 1996).

   Key              Currently known to occur in only in the Lower Cumberland (HUC

   Habitat         05130205) and South Fork Licking (HUC 05100102) River drainages.  

                         Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life in include 23% (Lower

                         Cumberland HUC) and 34% (South Fork Licking HUC) of stream miles

                         surveyed within these watersheds.   Neither HUC contains outstanding

                         resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Slender Madtom                                                                                                Noturus exilis

   Statewide   SlenderMadtom.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5K     Lack of suitable habitat for spawning, nesting, or breeding

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Smallscale Darter                                                                            Etheostoma microlepidum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E              G2G3            S1                  G2                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The smallscale darter occurs the lower Cumberland River drainage in

   Comment     western Kentucky and north central Tennessee.   Localized and common

                         (Page and Burr, 1991).   Raney and Zorach (1967) described the species

                         from East Fork of Stones River (Cumberland River drainage), Rutherford

                         County, Tennessee.   Other than Tennessee, Kentucky is the only other

                         state in which it occurs.   Impoundments likely continue to negatively

                         impact this species (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend       

   S-Trend     The distribution of this species in Kentucky has changed very little since

   Comment     Burr and Warren (1986).   Endemic populations persist in the lower

                         Cumberland (Little and Red Rivers), where it remains sporadic and rare (M.

                         Compton, KY Division of Water, personal communication).   It is

                         considered critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and

                         endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Restricted to upland streams and rivers on the Pennyroyal Plain of the

   Life History Highland Rim.   Typically occurs in moderate to fast flowing riffles over

                         cobble and pebble substrates (Burr and Warren 1986).   Life history

                         information for Kentucky populations is lacking.   Etnier and Starnes 1993).

                          Spawning behavior has been reported to be similar to other species of the

                         spotted darter group, in which eggs are attached to the underside of a large

                         rock in a single layer mass during late spring (Page et al. 1982).   Juveniles

                         are often taken in gravel riffles (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Other life history

                         aspects are unknown.

   Key              Occurs only in the Lower Cumberland (HUC 05130205) and Red River

   Habitat         (HUC 05130206) drainages.   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic

                         life in include 23% (Lower Cumberland HUC) and 73.1% (Red River HUC)

                         of stream miles surveyed within these watersheds.   Neither HUC contains

                         outstanding resource waters (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   SmallscaleDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Smallscale Darter                                                                            Etheostoma microlepidum

           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow)

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Southern Cavefish                                                                          Typhlichthys subterraneus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G4            S2S3                G4                        S2

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The southern cavefish is a troglobitic species occurring in disjunct

   Comment     populations in the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri and northeastern

                         Arkansas; and the Cumberland and Interior Plateaus of northern Alabama,

                         northwestern Georgia, central Tennessee, Kentucky, and extreme southern

                         Indiana. Complete population census information is lacking and it is

                         uncertain whether populations are adequately protected (NatureServe

                         2004).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     Populations in Kentucky are small and limited to the karst region of the

   Comment     Shawnee Hills and Highland Rim areas (Burr and Warren 1986). Individuals

                         have been found in several caves in five Kentucky counties (Clay 1975).

                         Populations exist in Barren (Cave City, Mitchells Cave, and Crystal Cave),

                         Edmonson (Mammoth Cave and Stillhouse Hollow Caves), Hart (Horse and

                          Hidden River Caves), and Warren (Bowling Green and Rich Pond)

                         Counties. It is considered imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and a

                         species of special concern by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves

                         Commission (2004).

   Habitat /     This species is an obligate cave dweller occurring in the karst regions of

   Life History Kentucky. It inhabits cool (10-14°C), lentic cave water but is attracted to

                         point sources of water entering its underground habitat (Burr and Warren

                         1986). Individuals have been found over several substrates including gravel,

                         sand, or mud.   Reproductive potential is very low. The minimum

                         population doubling time has been estimated to be between 1.4 and 4.4

                         years (Froese and Pauly 2004). The number of eggs per female is typically

                         <50 and only 50% of the adult female population may breed in any one

                         year.   Spawning occurs during the spring (March/April).   Females incubate

                         eggs in their gill chambers (branchial brooding) for up to four or five months

                         before hatching (NatureServe 2004). Sexual maturity is reached at age two

                         and the maximum reported age is four years (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Diet

                         consists of small crustaceans including amphipods, isopods, and copepods.

                         Dispersal of populations is thought to occur through the ground water table

                         (Clay 1975).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Southern Cavefish                                                                          Typhlichthys subterraneus

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Upper Green (HUC 05110001) and

   Habitat         Barren River (HUC 05110002) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range include 55.8% of stream miles surveyed in the

                         Upper Green River and 92.6% in the Barren River watersheds.   Number of

                         stream miles recognized as outstanding resource waters include 113.1 in the

                         The Upper Green and 14.7 for the Barren River drainages   (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Cave streams.

   Statewide   SouthernCavefish.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4H     Confined animal operations

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1C     Road construction

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Splendid Darter                                                                                   Etheostoma barrenense

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G4               S4                  G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The splendid darter is endemic to the upper Barren River drainage in

   Comment     Kentucky and Tennessee, where it is common (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

                         This species is on Tennessee’s list of rare vertebrates due to its restricted

                         range.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     The splendid darter is generally distributed in the upper Barren River

   Comment     drainage, where it is endemic (Burr and Warren 1986).

   Habitat /       Occurs in pools and occasionally is found along the margins of riffles over

   Life History rocky substrate on upland headwater creeks, streams, and rivers (Burr and

                         Warren 1986). Spawning occurs from early April through Mid-May over

                         boulders in flowing pools or gently flowing riffles (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Known to occur only in the Barren River (HUC 05110002).   Habitat

   Habitat         conditions fully supporting aquatic life include 92.7% of stream miles

                         surveyed within this watershed.   Nearly 15 stream miles in the Barren River

                          HUC are considered outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division of

                         Water 2004).

   Guilds           Upland streams in pools.

   Statewide   SplendidDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Splendid Darter                                                                                   Etheostoma barrenense

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier).   Burr and

                       Warren (1986)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment).   Burr and Warren (1986)

             4D     Oil and gas drilling operations   associated runoff.   Burr and Warren (1986)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

                       pesticides.   Burr and Warren (1986)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture.   Burr and Warren (1986)


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Spotted Darter                                                                                  Etheostoma maculatum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G2               S2                  G2                        S2

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    The spotted darter exhibits a relict distribution pattern in the Ohio River

   Comment     basin, from northeast Pennsylvania, southwest New York, central Ohio,

                         north central Indiana (probably extirpated) to Kentucky (Lee et al. (1980)).    

                         This species is declining throughout its range.   Population levels have been

                         observed to undergo extreme fluctuation in short time periods.   Habitat loss,

                          siltation, and water pollution have likely had severe impacts. This species

                         is considered critically imperiled throughout most of its range (NatureServe

                         2004).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Once having a more extensive distribution in the state, currently

   Comment     populations are known to occur only in the upper Green and Barren River

                         drainages (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is considered imperiled in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe, 2004) and threatened by the Kentucky State Nature

                         Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /     Optimal habitat conditions for this species include long riffles with rapid

   Life History flow over substrates of pebble, cobble, and slab boulders.   The spotted

                         darter, like other members of the boulder darter group, feeds on larvae of

                         different aquatic insect taxa, which varies according to season (Kessler,

                         1994).   Spawning occurs from late May to late June and individuals become

                         sexually mature at two years of age (about 40-45 mm SL; Raney and

                         Lachner, 1939).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Upper Green (HUC 05110001) and

   Habitat         Barren River (HUC 05110002) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range include 55.8% of stream miles surveyed in the

                         Upper Green River and 92.6% in the Barren River watersheds.   Number of

                         stream miles recognized as outstanding resource waters include 113.1 in the

                         The Upper Green and 14.7 for the Barren River drainages   (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   SpottedDarter.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Spotted Darter                                                                                  Etheostoma maculatum

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation).   Green/Barren

                       River populations

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier).  

                       Green/Barren River populations; 7; North Fork Kentucky River populations

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development).   Both populations

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities.   North Fork Kentucky River populations

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow).   North Fork Kentucky River

                       populations

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.).   Green/Barren River populations; 8; North Fork Kentucky River

                       populations

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4A     Acid mine drainage   other coal mining impacts .   North Fork Kentucky

                       River populations

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment).   Both populations

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining.   North Fork Kentucky River populations

             1B     Agriculture.   Green/Barren River populations


   CLASS      Actinopterygii

Spring Cavefish                                                                                    Forbesichthys agassizii

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N              G4G5          S4S5                G4                        S4

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend      The spring cavefish has a localized distribution, occurring in springs and caves

   Comment     from the Highland Rim of the Tennessee River drainage in Tennessee, middle and

                          lower Cumberland drainage, upper Barren Green drainages of Kentucky, Ohio

                         and Mississippi River tributaries near their junction in western Kentucky and

                         southern Illinois, and a single population west of the Mississippi River in Missouri

                          (Etnier and Starnes 1993, Pfleiger 1997).   Some populations are now considered

                         threatened or vulnerable, prompting the American Fisheries Society to add this

                         species to its list of imperiled freshwater and diadromous fishes of North

                         America (Jelks et al. 2008). It is critically imperiled in Missouri and Illinois along

                         the northern and western periphery of its range (Natureserve 2008).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend       The spring cavefish has been reported to be occasional and at times abundant in

   Comment     caves, springs, and spring-fed streams near the Ohio River, Livingston County,

                         through Land Between the Lakes, Red River (Cumberland River drainage), and

                         the Barren River drainage to Mammoth Cave; it is uncommon in the Pond and

                         Middle Green River drainages (Burr and Warren 1986).   Most known

                         occurrences are on private land.   A comprehensive survey of this species in

                         Kentucky needs to be conducted to identify and protect critical habitat.

   Habitat /       This species is a facultative cave dweller of the Highland Rim and Shawnee Hills

   Life              physiographic areas.   It occurs in cave streams and occasionally around the

   History          mouths of springs and in spring-fed swamps and small streams (Burr and Warren

                          1986).   Most known life history information is based on populations in southern

                         Illinois.   Adults apparently spawn in subterranean habitats during late winter

                         (Smith and Welch 1978).   Fecundity averages about 100 ova per female, and

                         sexual maturity is reached at age 1 (Poulson 1963); maximum life span is

                         estimated at 3 years (Smith and Welch 1978).   Hill (1968) reported a diet of

                         midge larvae, tiny worms, and microcrustaceans.   This study also documented

                         cannibalism among individuals when residing in subterranean habitats.

   Key              This species is known from caves, springs, and spring-fed streams in the

   Habitat         following HUC8 watersheds: Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Tradewater

                         (05140205), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Pond

                         (05110006), Middle Green (05110003), Red (05130206), and Barren (05110002).

                           Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life range from 20% in the Pond

                         River drainage to 93% in the Barren River drainage.   Apart from caves and

                         springs contained within the boundaries of Mammoth Cave National Park and

                         Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, most habitats supporting

                         populations of this species are on private land.

   Guilds           Cave streams, Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide     Spring_Cavefish.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

             2I       Periodic cessation or removal of spring flows or seeps

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns (flow/temp regimes)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,   pesticides

             4G     Chemical spills and contaminants (applied and accidental)

             4H     Confined animal operations

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Stargazing Minnow                                                                                Phenacobius uranops

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G4            S2S3                G4                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The stargazing minnow occurs in the Tennessee, Cumberland, and Green

   Comment     River drainages in the states of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Tennessee,

                         and (NatureServe 2004).   This species is common only in the upper

                         Tennessee and Green River drainages (NatureServe 2004).   It is considered

                         vulnerable (S3) in Virginia, apparently secure (S4) in Tennessee, imperiled

                         (S2S3) in Kentucky, and critically imperiled (S1) in Alabama and Georgia.

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     Occasional and locally common in the upper Green and Barren River

   Comment     drainages; sporadic and rare (possibly extirpated) in the Cumberland River

                         drainage (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is considered imperiled in Kentucky

                         (NatureServe, 2004) and treated as a species of special concern by the

                         Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /     Inhabits streams of moderate to high gradient in swift clear riffles and runs

   Life History over clean gravel and pebble substrates (Burr and Warren 1986; NatureServe

                          2004). Jenkins and Burkhead (1993) usually found it associated with riffles

                          and runs in 15-50 depths (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993).   Adults and

                         juveniles are nearly always found over clean gravel and small to medium

                         rubble.   Spawning occurs during April through June.   Sexual maturity is

                         reached at age 1 and life span is typically less than three years.   Feeding

                         schools of 10-20 individuals have been observed, often mixed with

                         streamline chubs.   Diet consists primarily of midge and caddisfly larvae

                         (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Upper Green (HUC 05110001) and

   Habitat         Barren River (HUC 05110002) watersheds.   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life range include 55.8% of stream miles surveyed in the

                         Upper Green River and 92.6% in the Barren River watersheds.   Number of

                         stream miles recognized as outstanding resource waters include 113.1 in the

                         The Upper Green and 14.7 for the Barren River drainages   (Kentucky

                         Division of Water 2004).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   StargazingMinnow.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Stargazing Minnow                                                                                Phenacobius uranops

           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining

             1B     Agriculture

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Starhead Topminnow                                                                                     Fundulus dispar

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G4               S1                  G4                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    Early works (including Branson 1972; Sisk 1973; Clay 1975; Rice et al.

   Comment     1983) referred to the starhead topminnow as Fundulus notti, a freshwater

                         species group made up of five species having the presence of a suborbital

                         teardrop (Wiley 1977).   According to Wiley (1977), Hubbs and Allen

                         (1943) first referred to F. dispar (northern starhead topminnow) as a

                         distinct species.   Others failed to acknowledge this as well as Wiley’s

                         (1977) work describing the species found in Kentucky as F. dispar;

                         previously considered a subspecies of F. notti- northern starhead

                         topminnow.   Recent American Fisheries Society (Nelson et al. 2004) names

                         list refers to F. dispar as starhead topminnow.   Previous works referred to it

                          as northern starhead topminnow.   Wiley (1977) gives the range for starhead

                          topminnow as from the Ouachita R. dr., Louisiana, north to (Lake

                         Michigan) southern Michigan (and Wisconsin), east to the upper

                         Tombigbee R. dr., Alabama; and Mississippi River basin (Page and Burr

                         1991).   Page and Burr (1991) deemed the species to be locally common but

                         becoming less so as wetlands are drained.   Following are starhead

                         topminnow population information from states adjacent to Kentucky.

                         Illinois (S2):   Smith (1979) gave reasons for its decline as oil pollution and

                         drainage of flood plain habitat.   It was put on their watch list by Illinois

                         Endangered Species Technical Advisory Committee on fishes (Burr 1991).

                         Taylor et al. (1994) verified (as northern) starhead topminnow from only

                         four of 23 historical locations and one new locale and concluded the range

                         had been significantly reduced since Smith's (1979) statewide survey (1950-

                         1978).

                         Indiana (S4): no information.

                         Missouri (S2): Currently known from three counties.   One of the habitats it

                         was once found but no longer exists was heavily vegetated lowland ditches

                         with no obvious flow (Pflieger 1997).

                         Tennessee (S3): Fairly abundant in suitable habitat around Reelfoot Lake

                         with scattered populations in vegetated overflow swamps of the

                         Mississippi drainage and south and in the Big Sandy System of lower

                         Tennessee River drainage.   They declared channelization has eliminated

                         much of its former habitat.

   S-Trend        Decreasing


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Starhead Topminnow                                                                                     Fundulus dispar

   S-Trend       Pre 1984:   The first documented presence of the starhead topminnow in Kentucky

Comment         waters was by Branson (1972).   Two specimens were collected (by two Eastern

                            Kentucky University professors in 1971) from borrow ditches draining into

                         Murphy’s Pond, Hickman County.   Sisk (1973) reported four specimens collect in

                         Oct. 1973 from Open Pond, Fulton Co. (again as F. notti), however, Warren and

                         Cicerello (1983) found Open Pond eliminated and converted to agricultural

                         landClay (1975) sites the northern starhead topminnow as the commonest

                         cyprinodont in Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, and taken from swamps of Union

                         County in southern Illinois.   The only known population he cited for the species in

                         Kentucky at the time was Branson (1972).   Rice et al. (1983) reported taking the

                         starhead topminnow (as F. notti) from two locations in the Reelfoot Lake dr. basin

                         and from a small stream draining Blue Pond into Running Slough; both sites in

                         Fulton County.   They also reported Cicerello and Warren (personal communication

                         1983) sampled individuals (June 1982) from Running Slough at Ledford in Fulton

                         County.   These sites are located in the Mississippi Alluvial and Eastern Gulf

                         Coastal Plain of the Coastal Plain Province.

                         Post 1984:   Ron Cicerello (pers. comm., 18 NOV 04) reported he was not aware of

                         any recent locality records for this species.   The Kentucky State Nature

                         PreservesCommission (2004) currently considers the starhead topminnow, F.

                         dispar, an Endangered species in Kentucky.

   Habitat/       Burr and Warren (1986) indicate the starhead topminnow is a surface dweller that

   Life History often cruises in pairs in close association with luxuriant beds of aquatic plants along

                         shoreline areas and that the topminnow is associated with floodplain lakes and

                         oxbows and wetland subsystems.   Page and Burr (1991) indicated this topminnow

                         preferred vegetated standing water bodies, quiet pools and backwater streams.  

                         Etnier and Starnes (1993) stated the starhead topminnow were associated with

                         vegetated swamps and lakes of the Mississippi Valley.   They provided citations

                         alluding to their food habits that included terrestrial insects, snails, small

                         crustaceans and some algae.   When conducting stomach analysis, Etnier and Starnes

                         (1993) primarily found their food to be terrestrial insects.   Pflieger (1997) observed

                         some aspects of their reproduction while visiting a swamp (Mingo) in Missouri

                         during May of 1987.   Specimens he relocated to a pond indicated that they spawned

                         over a period of time and possibly spawn during the first summer of life.  

                         NatureServe citing a study by Taylor and Burr (1997) in southern Illinois found the

                         starhead topminnow primarily reproduces in mid April-mid July at water

                         temperatures of 17-30oC, females produce multiple clutches and spawned at one

                         year of age and eggs hatched in 9-11 days at water temperatures about 25oC.  

                         Spawning takes place in dense beds of (aquatic) vegetation (Smith 1979).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Starhead Topminnow                                                                                     Fundulus dispar

                        

   Key            According to the information provided and available there are no post-1984 records

   Habitat       of F. dispar having been collected in Kentucky.   Pre-1984 records are discussed

                       below.   One record (1971) was from Murphy’s Pond, Obion Creek drainage,

                       Hickman County.   R. Cicerello (pers. comm., 18 NOV 04) indicated that over the

                       years he and others had looked for F. dispar at Murphy’s Pond without success.   This

                       area of Hickman County falls within HUC 08010201 (Kentucky Division of Water

                       2002).   Several locality records for the starhead topminnow fall within HUC

                       08010202.   One site, in the later HUC, Open pond, no longer exists (Warren and

                       Cicerello 1983).   Within HUC 08010201(Bayou De Chien-Mayfield, which should

                       include Obion) 182.5 miles of stream were assessed.   Of this 124.4 miles were rated

                       as Outstanding Resource Waters.   Of the remaining stream miles, 30.2% were fully,

                       37.0% were partially, and 32.8% were not supporting aquatic life resources.   No

                       locality records for the starhead topminnow exist with the areas designated as

                       Outstanding Resource Waters.   Within HUC 08010202 (Obion Creek-which should

                       be Reelfoot Lake-Obion River drainage, Tennessee), 28.7 stream miles were

                       assessed, with 27.8% fully, 56.0% partially, 16.2% not supporting aquatic life

                       resources and 1.7 miles of stream designated as Outstanding Resource Waters

                       (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

    Guilds         Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   StarheadTopminnow.pdf

   Map


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Starhead Topminnow                                                                                     Fundulus dispar

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow)

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Stone Darter                                                                                     Etheostoma derivativum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G4               S4                  G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The stone darter (Etheostoma derivativum) was recently described as a new

   Comment     species by Page et al. (2003).   Previously regarded as the striped darter (E.

                         virgatum), this species occurs in tributaries of the lower Cumberland River

                         drainage in west-central Kentucky and Tennessee from the Red River to the

                         lang=NO-BOKcolor:black; mso-ansi-language:NO-BOK'>Stones River systems (Page et al. 2003).   The most recent reports on the

                         status of E. derivativum (reported as lower Cumberland populations of E.

                         virgatum) indicate the species to be moderately common in Cumberland

                         River tributaries in the western Highland Rim of Tennessee (Etnier and

                         Starnes 1993; Page et al. 2003), but sporadic and uncommon in tributaries of

                          the Red River in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is confined to the Red River drainage in Todd and

   Comment     Logan Counties, where it is sporadic and uncommon (Burr and Warren

                         1986).   All state collection records for this species pre-date 1984.

   Habitat /       This species inhabits headwater creeks and streams (second- to fourth-

   Life History order) in the Western Pennyroyal Karst Plain of the Interior Plateau.   It

                         occurs primarily in shallow (less than 0.5m) pools, at the bases or margins

                         of (seldom within)   riffles, or along rocky banks, over gravel and sand

                         substrates laden with slab rocks (Kuehne and Barbour 1983; Burr and

                         Warren 1986).   No life history study has been conducted for E. derivativum,

                          but because of its close relationship to other barcheek species of the

                         subgenus Catonotus occurring in slab pools (e.g., E. smithi, E. barbouri, E.

                         obeyense, E. virgatum), it likely has similar reproductive, diet, and growth

                         characteristics.   All Catonotus species lay (attach) their eggs on the

                         undersides of flat rocks and are guarded by the adult male until they hatch

                         (Page 1983).   Most of the barcheek species spawn between April and June

                         and have a maximum life span of two to three years (Etnier and Starnes

                         1993).

   Key              Prior to 1984, the stone darter has been reported from one HUC8

   Habitat         (05130206) in Kentucky, which contains the Red River (lower Cumberland

                         drainage).   Within this HUC, water quality conditions were assesssed in

                         85.3 miles of stream by Kentucky Divison of Water (2002).   Among the

                         streams suveyed, 73.1% were identified as fully supportive, 17.6% as

                         partially supportive, and 9.4% as not supportive of aquatic life.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Stone Darter                                                                                     Etheostoma derivativum

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   StoneDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5F      Low population densities

             5H     Isolated populations (low gene flow)

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Striped Darter                                                                                       Etheostoma virgatum

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 N                 G4               S4                  G4                        S4

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    Jordan (1880) first described the striped darter as Poecilichthys virgatus

   Comment     from specimens collected from the Rock Castle River at Livingston,

                         Kentucky.   In 1896, Jordan and Evermann gave the known range of

                         Etheostoma virgatum as Rock Castle River and Round Stone River,

                         tributaries of Cumberland River in Rock Castle and Laurel counties,

                         Kentucky.   They described the species as not common.   Burr and Warren

                         (1986) show Kentucky’s striped darter distribution only in the Cumberland

                          River drainage below “the falls” [primarily Buck and Rockcastle creek

                         drainages] where it was common; also a few uncommon localities in the Red

                         River drainage, Todd and Logan counties, Kentucky.   Etnier and Starnes

                         (1993) presented the distribution of the striped darter as moderately

                         common in three disjunct portions of the Cumberland River drainage that

                         made up their range in Kentucky and Tennessee.   Populations are found in

                         Rockcastle River and adjacent stream systems in Kentucky and the upper

                         Caney Fork system in Tennessee and in the Red River dr., Todd and Logan

                         counties, Kentucky.   However, recently Page et al. (2003) described each of

                         these disjunct populations as separate species.   The population of striped

                         darters in the eastern Highland Rim (Kentucky) remained Etheostoma

                         virgatum (striped darter).   Doing so made this species endemic to Kentucky.

                           Those found in the upper Caney Fork system in the Highland Rim of

                         central Tennessee were described as E. basilare (corrugated darter), none of

                         which are found in Kentucky.   And those populations located in the

                         western Rim, lower Cumberland River (which include that population in

                         Todd and Logan Counties, Kentucky) are now known as E. derivativum

                         (stone darter).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     Page et al. (2003) described two of the three somewhat disjunct populations

   Comment     of E. virgatum found within the Cumberland River drainage as new species.

                          Based on their conclusions, the striped darter (E. virgatum) populations are

                          those occuring below the falls in the Cumberland River drainage.   They are

                         known from the Rockcastle, Buck and Beaver creek systems and are locally

                         common.   Based on their finding the striped darter can currently be

                         considered endemic to Kentucky.   Habitat is probably their most limiting

                         factor regarding distribution.   In Kentucky, striped darters are limited by

                         Lake Cumberland (downstream), “the falls” (upstream) and Laurel River

                         Lake and tailwaters (cold water temperatures of the tailwaters).  To date


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Striped Darter                                                                                       Etheostoma virgatum

                         there are no records from Laurel River.   Eisenhour (pers. comm.) thought

                         that the population in the middle Cumberland River was stable and needed

                         no intensive management.   However, that was prior to much of that

                         population being re-described as E. basilare by Page et al. (2003).

   Habitat /     This species generally prefers clear, shallow, slightly flowing headwater

   Life History streams with numerous shallow riffles and runs.   Etheostoma virgatum,

                         striped darter, belongs to the subgenus Catonotus, the barcheek darters.  

                         One of the common life history aspects of Catonotus is their spawning

                         habit.   Darters within this subgenus spawn on the underside of a stone

                         (rock).   During breeding season the male attracts a female to his “nest rock”

                         (they only spawn with one female at a time).   Under this rock he has cleared

                          out an area large enough for turning and spawning (not much deeper than

                         his body including his erect fins) and an area on the underside of his nest

                         rock.   Here the attracted female inverts and deposits eggs that adhere to the

                         nest rock and the male subsequently inverts to fertilize these eggs.   The

                         female then leaves and the male guards the eggs until they hatch.   The male

                         spawns with numerous females until no more females are attracted or the

                         available area on the underside of the nest rock is filled.   Kornman (1980)

                         found that the striped darter made upstream migrations to spawn.   He

                         counted up to 774 eggs adhered to the underside of one nest rock.   Most of

                         the nest rocks were flat, although he did find a nest on the underside of a

                         geode.   He offers an in depth account pertaining to life history and meristics

                          of E. virgatum from Clear Creek a tributary to Rockcastle River, Kentucky.

                           Most of the year in Clear Creek he found that the striped darter preferred

                         the slack water to the sides and downstream ends of gentle riffle/runs or

                         located on the downstream end of rocks found within a riffle/run.   The

                         darters backed off into deeper water as cooler weather arrived.   Striped

                         darters preferred a bottom of sand and gravel, mixed with large pebbles and

                         small rock.   They were rarely found in areas of steeper gradient, exposed

                         bedrock, and swifter and/or deeper water.   The striped darter also showed a

                         dislike for benthic habitats comprised of silt and/or organic debris.

   Key              Currently the striped darter is only recognized from the Cumberland River

   Habitat         system in Kentucky from Rockcastle, Buck, and Beaver Creek drainages

                         within HUC 05130101 (Upper Cumberland), HUC 05130102 (Rockcastle

                         River), and HUC 05130103 Upper Cumberland/Lake Cumberland).   In each

                         of the three HUC8 watersheds, water quality appears to be good as 67 to

                         82% of the streams surveyed are fully supporting of aquatic life and 11 to

                         13% are partially supportive.   However, 18% of the surveyed waters in the

                         Upper Cumberland/Lake Cumberland HUC are listed as threatened and 19%

                          of those in the Upper Cumberland are non-supportive of aquatic life.


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Striped Darter                                                                                       Etheostoma virgatum

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   StripedDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Miscellaneous Mortality Factors

             6G     Stochastic events (droughts, unusual weather, pine beetle damage, flooding

                       etc.)

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4B     Waste water discharge (e.g., sewage treatment)

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1D     Urbanization/Development   General Construction

             1E      Silviculture


CLASS        Actinopterygii

 

Sturgeon Chub                                                                                         Macrhybopsis gelida

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 H                 G3               S1                  G3                        N

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend      The sturgeon chub occurs in the Missouri River drainage and the main channel of

   Comment     the Mississippi River below the confluence of the Missouri River (Pflieger 1997).

                           It is more widespread in the Missouri River drainage than the sicklefin chub

                         (Etnier and Starnes 1993, Jenkins 1980). Like the sicklefin chub, it has been

                         reported to be relatively abundant in portions of the Missouri River, but much less

                          common in the Mississippi River (Pflieger 1997, Etnier and Starnes 1993).   The

                         species is rare in the lower Mississippi River below the confluence of the

                         Missouri River south to Louisiana (Etnier and Starnes 1993, Burr and Warren

                         1986, Robison and Buchanan 1988).   The sturgeon chub is listed as critically

                         imperiled in states east of the Mississippi River (Illinois, Kentucky, and

                         Tennessee), vulnerable in Missouri, possibly extirpated in Iowa, and imperiled to

                         critically imperiled in states containing the upper Missouri River drainage

                         (Natureserve 2008).   It was listed as a federal candidate species in 1995 (U.S.

                         Fish and Wildlife Service 1995), and is listed as Endangered by the Kentucky

                         State Nature Preserves Commission (2005).   The American Fisheries Society lists

                          the species as vulnerable based on present or threatened destruction,

                         modification, or reduction of the species’ habitat or range (Jelks et al. 2008).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend       Like the sicklefin chub, very few records are available for this species in the

   Comment     Mississippi River in western Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986, Herzog 2004).  

                         This has been due mostly to difficulties with capturing small benthic fishes in

                         large river habitats.   The species was captured recently along with the sicklefin

                         chub in benthic trawl samples in the Mississippi River at Wolf Island in western

                         Kentucky; short-term data suggest that this species is uncommon, but not rare,

                         and that its numbers are stable (Herzog 2004).

   Habitat /       This is a small, benthic minnow limited to the turbid waters of the main channel

   Life              of the Mississippi River in western Kentucky.   Recent benthic trawl surveys

   History          (2000-2001) produced sturgeon and sicklefin chubs at a single location at Wolf

                         Island (Herzog 2004).   According to Herzog (2004), both species generally utilize

                          similar habitats during particular times of the year (e.g., February-March), but

                         partition themselves by age class, size, and species at other times.   The sturgeon

                         chub apparently occupies shallower depths (68% captured at less than 2 m) than

                         the sicklefin chub (69% captured at greater than 4 m).   Like the sicklefin chub, it

                         has characteristics typical of fishes adapted to low light conditions of large turbid

                          rivers, including reduced eyes partially covered by skin and numerous taste buds

                          covering the head, body, and fins; in addition, the sturgeon chub has peculiar

                         keeled dorsolateral scales (Etnier and Starnes; Pflieger 1997).   The food habits of

                         the sicklefin chub are poorly known, but it is probably a bottom feeder relying on

                          taste to locate its food (Pflieger 1997).   Pflieger (1997) surmised that the

                         spawning habits of this species are probably like those of the speckled chub

                         (eggs deposited in deep water in swift current), since the two species are known

                         to hybridize.   Spawning is thought to occur in late spring or early summer, based

                         on tubercled males taken in May and late June (Robison and Buchanan 1988).

   Key              Records for this species are available for the Lower Mississippi-Memphis (HUC8

   Habitat         08010100) and Lower Ohio (05140206) watershed units; the latter record is

                         actually from the Mississippi River at Cairo, Illinois (Burr and Warren 1986).  

                         Sections of the Mississippi River where this species has been found are impacted

                         by channel modifications made to enhance barge traffic.   No reach of the

                         Mississippi River or its tributaries in western Kentucky are rated as fully

                         supporting aquatic life.   Most (64%) offer only partial support, while 36% are

                         considered non-supportive (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Large rivers in current.

   Statewide     Sturgeon_Chub.pdf

   Map           

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2A     Navigational dredging/Commercial dredging

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2G     Water level fluctuations

             2J       Alteration of surface runoff patterns (flow/temp regimes)

CLASS        ACTINOPTERYGII

Swamp Darter                                                                                      Etheostoma fusiforme

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G5               S1                  G5                        S1

   G-Trend       Stable

   G-Trend    The swamp darter ranges from southwestern Missouri, District of

   Comment     Columbia, Pennsylvania, and New York south along the Atlantic coastal

                         states to southern Florida, then west through the gulf coast states to Texas

                         and north through Oklahoma, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Missouri, and

                         Kentucky (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend        Unknown

   S-Trend     Known only from two locations in the Reelfoot Lake drainage in Fulton

   Comment     County where the species is rare (Burr and Warren 1986). This location is

                         at the northern margin of its range in the Mississippi River drainage.   It is

                         considered critically imperiled in Kentucky (NatureServe, 2004) and

                         endangered by the Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       Inhabits ditches and oxbow lakes (Etnier and Starnes 1993). In Kentucky,

   Life History this species is found only in sloughs, ditches, wetlands, and lakes of the

                         Reelfoot Lake drainage on the Mississippi Alluvial Plain in beds of

                         submerged aquatic plants or detritus piles. Spawning likely occurs in May.

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Obion Creek (HUC 08010202)

   Habitat         watershed.   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic life include 27.8%

                         of the streams surveyed within this watershed, and 1.7 stream miles are

                         considered outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division of Water 2002).

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   SwampDarter.pdf

   Map            


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Swamp Darter                                                                                      Etheostoma fusiforme

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

             2H     Wetland loss/drainage/alteration

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1B     Agriculture


  CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Taillight Shiner                                                                                           Notropis maculatus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G5            S2S3                G5                        S2

   G-Trend       Unknown

   G-Trend    The taillight shiner is found in 14 states in the Atlantic, Gulf, and

   Comment     Mississippi River basins (Froese and Pauly 2004).   It is considered

                         vulnerable to imperiled in eight of these states (Natureserve 2004).   It is

                         locally common in the southeastern U.S. and uncommon in the Mississippi

                         basin (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Channelization has probably extirpated

                         several populations in Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species is occasionally and seasonally common in oxbow

   Comment     lakes of the lower Ohio and Mississippi Rivers (Burr and Warren 1986).   It

                         is sporadic and rare in Bayou de Chien and Obion Creeks (Burr and Warren

                         1986).   Populations in Kentucky are considered stable or slightly increasing,

                          although some of this may be due to increased sampling efforts (D.

                         Eisenhour, Morehead State University, personal communication).

   Habitat /       Restricted to coffee-stained waters of low gradient streams, oxbow lakes,

   Life History and sloughs that border river systems (Burr and Warren 1986). The acidity

                         (PH) of such waters is typically 6.1-6.9 (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   This

                         species is generally found around cypress knees near the shallow margins of

                          lakes or backwaters over soft substrates of mud or detritus near or among

                         vegetation (Burr and Warren 1986).   Spawning occurs from March to May

                         in Kentucky and March to October in Florida (Etnier and Starnes 1993).  

                         Lifespan is slightly longer than one year (Etnier and Starnes 1993).  

                         Preferred food items include microcrustaceans, rotifers, unicellular algae, and

                          small dipteran larvae (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in four HUC8 watersheds, including Bayou du

   Habitat         Chien-Mayfield (HUC 08010201), Lower Ohio (HUC 05140206), Lower

                         Tennessee-Kentucky Lake (HUC 06040006), and Lower Mississippi-

                         Memphis (HUC 08010100).   Habitat conditions fully supporting aquatic

                         life range from 0% to 52% of stream miles surveyed within these

                         watersheds.   Although the Bayou du Chien-Mayfield HUC has over 124

                         stream miles considered outstanding resource water, most of the other

                         watersheds have fewer than ten (Kentucky Division of Water 2002, 2004).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Taillight Shiner                                                                                           Notropis maculatus

   Guilds           Lowland Streams in slackwater.

   Statewide   TaillightShiner.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Western Sand Darter                                                                                  Ammocrypta clara

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                 E                 G3               S1                  G3                        S1

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    The western sand darter has a widespread, but spotty distribution in larger

   Comment     streams of the Mississippi River basin from Texas and Mississippi, north

                         to Minnesota and Wisconsin (Etnier and Starnes 1993).   Populations are

                         declining in several regions due to habitat loss and siltation (Natureserve

                         2004).   Western sand darter populations tend to fluctuate widely,

                         apparently more abundant in the northern part of the range than farther

                         south (Williams 1975).   Abundance estimates may be conservative due to

                         the cryptic nature of this species.   Population declines have been noted in

                         Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Kentucky (Natureserve 2004).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     In Kentucky, this species was originally reported from the Green River

   Comment     (Green County), Wolf Creek (Martin County), and the Cumberland River

                         (Wayne County) (Burr and Warren 1986).   More recent collections have

                         shown possible extirpation from both the Cumberland River and Wolf

                         Creek (Burr and Warren 1986).   Two individuals been collected from the

                         Kentucky River since 1984.

   Habitat /     Inhabits medium to large streams and rivers with low to moderate gradients

   Life History but has also been found in quiet margins of drainage canals and shallow

                         backwaters (NatureServe 2004).   It typically prefers sandy substrates, but

                         may also be found in gravel/cobble areas associated with pools and riffles

                         (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; NatureServe 2004).   Because this buries itself

                         in sand for protection, stabilization, and cover when ambushing prey, this

                         substrate is critical to its survival (Etnier and Starnes 1993; Page 1983).  

                         Spawning occurs during summer months in shallow riffles (Jenkins and

                         Burkhead 1993).   Diet consists primarily of larval aquatic insects

                         (NatureServe 2004).

   Key              Currently known to occur only in the Upper Green (HUC 05110001) and

   Habitat         the North Fork Kentucky (HUC 05100201) River drainages.   Habitat

                         conditions fully supporting aquatic life range include 55.8% of stream miles

                         surveyed in the Upper Green River and 49% in the North Fork Kentucky

                         River watersheds.   Number of stream miles recognized as outstanding

                         resource waters include 113.1 in the The Upper Green but none in the

                         North Fork Kentucky River (Kentucky Division of Water 2004).


   CLASS      ACTINOPTERYGII

Western Sand Darter                                                                                  Ammocrypta clara

   Guilds           Medium to large streams.

   Statewide   WesternSandDarter.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2E      Stream channelization/ditching

        Siltation and increased turbidity

             1A     Coal mining


   CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

American Brook Lamprey                                                                        Lampetra appendix

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G4               S2                  G4                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Widespread, but with a fragmented distribution throughout the northeastern

   Comment     U.S. and Canada.   Populations occur primarily in historically glaciated

                         areas, and are sporadically distributed elsewhere (Trautman 1981).   Most

                         populations in the Ohio and lower Mississippi basins are considered

                         imperiled, and Atlantic Coastal populations are considered critically

                         imperiled (NatureServe 2004).   The most secure or stable populations

                         appear to occur in the Great Lakes drainages (NatureServe 2004) and

                         uplands of east Tennessee (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   S-Trend        Decreasing

   S-Trend     This species is sporadic and rare in the Kentucky with records from the

   Comment     Licking, Little Sandy, Big Sandy, Upper Cumberland, upper Kentucky and

                         the upper Green River watersheds.   It is listed as Threatened by the

                         Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission (2004).

   Habitat /       This is a non-parasitic species, considered to be derived from a parasitic

   Life History ancestor.   Juveniles are filter feeders for at least 5 years before

                         metamorphosis into sexually mature adults.   Larvae prefer pools and

                         backwater areas with sediment in which they can bury themselves.  

                         Following larval transformation, adults do not feed and die soon after

                         spawning (Pflieger 1997).   Spawning occurs in fast moving riffles of high to

                         medium-gradient streams over rocky substrates (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Current distribution includes the upper Kentucky River (HUC05100201

   Habitat         and HUC05100204) and upper Green River (HUC05110001).   Habitat

                         conditions in the upper Kentucky HUCs are considered fully supporting

                         of aquatic life in 75% of stream miles surveyed.   The upper Green HUC8

                         contains 113.1 miles of outstanding resource waters with habitat conditions

                         considered to be fully supporting of aquatic life in 80% of stream miles

                         surveyed   (Kentucky Division of Water 2004).   Historically in Kentucky,

                         the American brook lamprey has been collected in 11 HUC8 watersheds.

   Guilds           Medium to large streams.


  CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

American Brook Lamprey                                                                        Lampetra appendix

   Statewide   AmericanBrookLamprey.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5A     Predation from introduced species

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  


   CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

Chestnut Lamprey                                                                             Ichthyomyzon castaneus

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  S                 G4               S2                  G4                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Widely distributed throughout the northeastern U.S. and Canada and occurs

   Comment     in more than 20 states and provinces.   Subnational ranks range from S1 to

                         S4 with a global rank of G4 (NatureServe 2004).   They are critically

                         imperiled in Nebraska and possibly extirpated in Kansas.

   S-Trend       

   S-Trend     Sporadic and rare in Kentucky with records mainly from the western third

   Comment     of the state.   Large numbers occur in the spring below Kentucky Lake Dam.

                         (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is reported from the Middle Green River,

                         Rough River, Red River, Lower Cumberland, Lower Ohio and Lower

                         Mississippi watersheds.   Since 1984, it has only been reported from the

                         Lower Cumberland and the Lower Mississippi watersheds

   Habitat /       This species is parasitic and is the largest lamprey found in the state.  

   Life History Juveniles are filter feeders for 5-7 years after which they metamorphose

                         into adults.   Adults attach themselves to other fishes using their sucker-like

                         mouths and drain blood and fluids from the fish.   The adult stage typically

                         lasts two years after which the adults spawn and die.    Larvae prefer pools

                         and backwater areas with sediment in which they can bury themselves.  

                         Adults spawn in fast moving riffles of high to mid-gradient streams. Ideal

                         habitat consists of rocky riffles for spawning adults in combination with

                         pools containing mixed sand and organic debris for the larvae (Trautman

                         1982).   This species also requires a healthy population of an appropriate

                         host fish species.

   Key              Although known from seven HUC8 watershed units in Kentucky, Chestnut

   Habitat         lampreys have recently been collected only in the lower Tennessee

                         (Kentucky Lake HUC 06040005) and Mississippi (HUC 08010100) River

                         drainages.   Habitat conditions for the lower Tennessee are considered fully

                         supporting of aquatic life for just over 50% of stream miles surveyed and

                         only 32% are fully supporting in the Mississippi.

   Guilds           Medium to large streams.


   CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

Chestnut Lamprey                                                                             Ichthyomyzon castaneus

   Statewide   ChestnutLamprey.pdf

   Map            

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5A     Predation from introduced species

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  


  CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

Mountain Brook Lamprey                                                                   Ichthyomyzon greeleyi

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T              G3G4            S2                  G3                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Widely distributed throughout the Ohio River basin and reported from 10

   Comment     states.   NatureServe 2004 lists them as vulnerable to critically imperiled

                         with a global rank of G3/G4.   Isolated populations exist primarily in areas

                         where there have not been major alterations that restrict upstream

                         movement such as dams and lakes. Etnier and Starnes (1993) state that

                         adults are available for only a brief period in spring; hence collections

                         probably underestimate abundance.

   S-Trend        Stable

   S-Trend     Sporadic and rare in the state with records from the eastern third of the

   Comment     state.   (Burr and Warren 1986).   It is reported from the Upper Cumberland,

                         Rockcastle River, Barren River and the Upper Green River watersheds.

   Habitat /       This is a non-parasitic species believed to be derived from the parasitic

   Life History Ohio Lamprey.   Like other lampreys, the life cycle consists of a larval and

                         adult stage.   Larvae may spend live five to seven years before transforming

                         into adults.   Upon adult transformation, spawning occurs during late spring

                         on riffles in slow to moderate current in upland creeks and rivers.   Several

                         nests may be built within close proximity to one another, over which many

                         adults may be congregated (Etnier and Starnes 1993).

   Key              Currently known to occur in the Rockcastle River (HUC05130102),   Big

   Habitat         South Fork of the Cumberland River (HUC05130104), and upper Green

                         River (HUC05110001).   Habitat conditions considered fully supporting of

                         aquatic life range from 80 to 90% of stream miles surveyed within these

                         watersheds.   All contain outstanding resource water (Kentucky Division of

                         Water 2002).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   MountainBrookLamprey.pdf

   Map            


   CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

Mountain Brook Lamprey                                                                   Ichthyomyzon greeleyi

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5A     Predation from introduced species

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  


   CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

Northern Brook Lamprey                                                                       Ichthyomyzon fossor

                       Federal     Heritage      GRank       SRank      GRank              SRank

                       Status         Status                                                 (Simplified)        (Simplified)

                            N                  T                 G4               S2                  G4                        S2

   G-Trend      

   G-Trend    Widely distributed throughout the northeastern U.S. and Canada.  

   Comment     Subnational ranks range from S1 to S4 with a global rank of G4

                         (NatureServe 2004).

   S-Trend       

   S-Trend     Sporadic and rare with records from the eastern third of the state.   It is

   Comment     reported from the Licking, Little Sandy, Big Sandy and Upper Kentucky

                         watersheds (Burr and Warren 1986).

   Habitat /     This is a non-parasitic species believed to be derived from the parasitic

   Life History Silver Lamprey.   Like other lampreys, the life cycle consists of a larval and

                         adult stage.   Larvae spend three to six years partially buried in soft-

                         bottomed areas of streams where the feed on microscopic organisms and

                         organic particles from bottom sediments (Pflieger 1997).   Upon adult

                         transformation, individuals migrate short distances upstream in small

                         gravelly creeks to spawn.   Adults do not feed, and die shortly after

                         spawning (Smith 1979).

   Key              The most recent records are from the upper Kentucky River (HUC

   Habitat         05100204), lower Levisa Fork (HUC 05070203), Big Sandy (HUC

                         05070204) and Little Sandy (HUC 05090104).   Habitat conditions fully

                         supporting aquatic life ranges from 20% (lower Levisa Fork HUC) to 80%

                         (upper Kentucky River HUC) of stream miles surveyed within these

                         watersheds.   Most records are from the upper Kentucky River drainage.  

                         None of these watersheds contain outstanding resource waters (Kentucky

                         Division of water 2000, 2004).

   Guilds           Upland streams in riffles.

   Statewide   NorthernBrookLamprey.pdf

   Map             


  CLASS      CEPHALASPIDOMORPHI

Northern Brook Lamprey                                                                       Ichthyomyzon fossor

Conservation Issues

        Aquatic habitat degradation

             2B     Gravel/sand removal or quarrying (e.g., mineral excavation)

             2C     Construction/Operation of impoundments (migration barrier)

             2F      Riparian zone removal (Agriculture/development)

        Biological/ consumptive uses

             5A     Predation from introduced species

        Point and non-point source pollution

             4E      Agricultural runoff – including fertilizers/animal waste, herbicides,  

FISH AND LAMPREY LITERATURE CITED

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Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, USA.

Bell, D., Timmons, T.J.. Life history of the brighteye darter, Etheostoma lynceum (Pices: Percidae), in Terrapin Creek, Kentucky. Proceedings Southeastern Fishes Council [23], 1-6. 1991

Boschung, H. T., Jr., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C., USA..

Branson, B.A.. Fundulus notti in Kentucky. Transactions Kentucky Academy of Science 32 (34), 76 pages. 1972.

Branson, B.A., Harker Jr., D.F., Baskin, J.M., Medley, M.E., Batch, D.L., Warren Jr., M.L., Davis, W.H., Houtcooper, W.C., Monroe Jr., B., Phillip . Endangered, Threatened, and rare animals and plants of Kentucky. Transactions Kentucky Academy of Science 43 (3-4), 77-89. 1981.

Burr, B.M.. The fishes of Illinois: An overview of a dynamic fauna. Our Living Heritage: The Biological Resources of Illinois . Symposium Proceedings 34, article 4, pages 417-427. 1991. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin. Page, L. M. and Jeffords, M. R.

Burr, B.M., Carney, C.A., 1984. The blacktail redhorse, Mosostoma poecilurum (Catostomidae), in Kentucky, with other additions to the state ichthyofauna. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 45:73-74.

Burr, B.M., Eisenhour, D.J.. Abstract of papers presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences at Morehead, Kentucky. 1997.

Burr, B.M., L. M. Page 1986. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi Basin. Pages 287-324 in C. H. Hocutt, E. O. Wiley editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. Wiley Interscience, New York..

Burr, B.M., Mayden, R.L., 1979. Records of fishes in western Kentucky with additions to the known fauna. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 40:58-67.

Burr, B.M., Warren, M.L.Jr., 1986. A Distributional Atlas of Kentucky Fishes. Volume Number 4 . Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series.

Butler, R.S., Kessler, R., J. B. Harrel, 2003. Down by the Green River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Bulletin 28:20-21.

Ceas, P.A., Burr, B.M., 2002. Etheostoma lawrencei, a new species of darter in the E. spectabile species complex (Percidae: subgenus Oligocephalus), from Kentucky and Tennessee. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 13:203-216.

Ceas, P.A., Page, L.M., 1997. Systematic studies of the Etheostoma spectabile complex (Percidae; subgenus Oligocephalus), with descriptions of four species. Copeia496-522.

Cicerello, R.R., Warren, M.L., 1984. Range extensions and drainage record for four Kentucky fishes. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences 45 (3-4):158-159.

Clay, W. M. The fishes of Kentucky. 1975. Frankfort, Kentucky, Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources.

Clemmer, G. H. 1980. Notropis amnis Hubbs and Greene, pallid shiner. Page 224 in D.S. Lee, et al., editor. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum Natural History, Raleigh, USA.

Compton, M.C., Moeykens, M.D., 2001. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science 62:144- 145.

DeLorme. Kentucky Atlas and Gazetteer. 1997. DeLorme.

Eisenhour, D.J., Burr, B.M.. Conservation status and nesting biology of the endangered duskytail darter, Etheostoma percnurum, in the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River, Kentucky. Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Sciences 61 (2), 67-76. 2000.

Etnier, D.A., Starnes, W.C.. The Fishes of Tennessee. 1993. Knoxville, Tennessee, University of Tennessee Press.

Etnier, D.A., Williams, J.D.. Etheostoma (Nothonotus) wapiti (Actinopterygii: Percidae), a new darter from the southern bend of the Tennessee River system in Alabama and Tennessee. Proceeding Biological Society of Washington 102 (4), 987-1000. 1989.

Froese, R., Pauly, D.. FishBase. Froese, Pauly. 2004. September, 2004.

Gilbert, C. R. 1980. Clinostomus elongatus (Kirtland), redside dace. Page 148 in D.S. Lee, et al., editor. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum Natural History, Raleigh, USA

Heins, D. C. 1990. Mating behaviors of the blacktail shiner, Cyprinella venusta, from southeastern Mississippi. Proceedings of the Southeastern Fishes Council 21: 5-7.

Herzog, D. P. 2004. Capture efficiency and habitat use of sturgeon chub (Macrhybopsis gelida) and sicklefin chub (Macrhybopsis meeki) in the Mississippi River. Thesis, Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, USA

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