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Chronic Wasting Disease

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Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease, Wyoming.  Photo Credit:  Dr. Elizabeth Williams, University of Wyoming.  C/O CWD Alliance

Elk with Chronic Wasting Disease, Wyoming.
Photo credit: Dr. Elizabeth Williams, University of Wyoming. C/O CWD Alliance.

What is CWD and what is the Department doing about it?

The Department has developed a CWD Response Plan that will serve to guide the Department in​ strategically managing CWD if the disease were to be found in Kentucky or within close proximity to its borders. To view the response plan click CWD Response Plan.

The Kentucky Fish and Wildlife Commission (board) has also adopted the authoritative Best management Practices for addressing CWD. This report was produced by a panel of deer, elk and wildlife disease experts from the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (AFWA), of which the Department is an active member agency.

Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a fatal, neurological disease of white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, caribou and moose. The disease was first recognized as a ‘wasting syndrome’ in mule deer in a research facility in Northern Colorado in 1967 and has since spread to free-ranging and captive populations in 26 U.S. states and three Canadian Provinces. The disease is currently present in six of seven Kentucky-bordering states (Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia, Tennessee).

Deer Sample Collection Stations

Kentucky Fish and Wildlife has established Deer Sample Collection Stations at several locations across the state. At these locations, hunters may submit the heads of their legally harvested and telechecked deer for Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) testing and aging.

Since 2002, the department has CWD-tested more than 32,000 deer and elk for CWD from every county in the state. Hunters harvested most of those animals. Each county has been represented by multiple deer samples being tested.

CWD has not been found in the State of Kentucky. To see which states have confirmed CWD in deer or elk, check out the US Geological Survey’s CWD Map.

Kentucky Fish and Wildlife coordinated with local, state and federal agency partners to establish the first 12 Deer Sample Collection Stations in Fulton, Marshall, Trigg, Monroe, Franklin, Woodford, Grant, Knox, Wolfe, Leslie and Magoffin counties.

deer collection sample locations  
 
deer collection sample table  
 

The Deer Sample Collection Stations are strategically located to enhance sample collection in areas receiving fewer samples previously, or areas identified as high-risk because of their proximity to confirmed CWD cases in neighboring states.

There is no cost to hunters for submitting the head of a legally harvested and telechecked deer at a Deer Sample Collection Station.

Lab testing and age determination may take up to 10 weeks. Results will be available to hunters via this webpage. If a hunter-submitted sample tests positive for CWD, the department will notify the hunter.

Hunters who intend to submit a deer head for testing and age determination should:

  • Remove any antlers, if present, and preserve the head with at least 4 inches of the neck attached.
  • Place the head in a garbage bag and seal the open end with a knot. Garbage bags will be available at each location.
  • Fill out a biological sample tag. Hunters must provide their name, phone number, email address, telecheck confirmation number, county of harvest, indicate if the deer was male or female and if the deer was harvested on public land.
  • The top portion of the tag should be attached to the garbage bag. Zip ties will be provided at each location. Hunters should keep the bottom portion of the completed tag for their records.
  • Place the bag containing the sample into the freezer.

Step-by-step instructions will be posted at each location.

Hunting Deer, Elk, Moose or Caribou in Other States? Carcass transportation restrictions apply:

CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

If you hunt big game outside of Kentucky, you may not bring any member of the deer (Cervidae) family back into Kentucky unless the brain and spinal column have been removed first.

Allowed parts from outside of Kentucky include: portions of meat with no part of the spinal column or head attached, boned-out meat, antlers, antlers attached to a clean skull plate, a clean skull, clean teeth, hides and finished taxidermy products.

CWD has not been detected in Kentucky.

CWD has been found in 26 states, four Canadian provinces and in Europe and Asia: Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Finland, Norway, Sweden and South Korea.

View more info on our CWD page here. Up-to-date news regarding CWD can also be found at the site of the Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance.

Causative Agent

CWD belongs to a group of diseases called Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE), which includes scrapie in sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (commonly known as "mad cow” disease) in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. It is suspected that the agent responsible for causing TSEs is an abnormal protein called a prion.

Although the exact method of transmission is unknown, evidence suggests that CWD is transmitted through direct animal-to-animal contact and indirectly through environmental contamination from feces, urine, saliva, and infected carcasses. There is evidence that CWD prions can survive in the environment even after infected animals have been removed.

Clinical Signs

Animals can be infected with CWD for months or years before clinical signs are evident. In the terminal stages of infection, deer and elk will show signs of progressive weight loss, excessive salivation and urination, increased water intake, and depression. Other noticeable changes include decreased interactions with other animals, listlessness, lowering of the head, blank facial expression, and repetitive walking in set patterns. In elk, hyper-excitability and nervousness may be observed. There is no known treatment for the disease and the disease is typically fatal.

NOTE: These signs are also symptomatic of other more commonly seen diseases, such as meningeal worm infections (“brain worm”) in elk and epizootic hemorrhagic disease or blue-tongue virus in white-tailed deer and elk.

Lesions

No obvious lesions can be seen in affected animals. With advanced disease, the brain will have a “spongy” appearance when examined under a microscope.

Diagnosis

The only definitive way to diagnose the disease is by examination of a portion of the brain stem (the obex) and lymph node tissue (the retropharyngeal lymph node). There is currently no practical live-animal test for chronic wasting disease.

KAR 2:095 Importation of Cervid Carcasses and Parts

https://apps.legislature.ky.gov/law/kar/301/002/095.pdf​​

US Summary Carcass Restrictions_currentmaponly.jpg

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If you plan to hunt outside the state of Kentucky for cervids (white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, caribou, or moose) please know the requirements of what you can bring back with you on your return. Hunters can now only bring back the following:

  • Meat – quartered or deboned
  • Antlers
  • Antlers that are attached to a clean skull plate
  • A clean skull
  • Finished taxidermy product
  • The hide

Hunters shall not import a cervid carcass or carcass parts that has any part of the spinal column or head into Kentucky. These requirements are put into place to help slow the movement of CWD into Kentucky.

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